Table of contents

1 physical exercise

1.1 time spent in sedentary positions

Avoid remaining in a sedentary position for extended periods of time ( this includes sitting and standing still ): alternate sitting and standing.

Whenever you can, walk or run instead of taking the car.

Some exercise is better than none.

1.2 benefits of physical exercise

1.2.1 to balance and coordination

Physical exercise improves balance and coordination. This becomes especially important as we get older because it helps to prevent falls and the broken bones that may result.

1.2.2 to bones

Exercise works on bones much like it works on muscles ( by making them stronger ). Because bone is a living tissue, it changes in response to the forces placed upon it. When you exercise regularly, your bone adapts by building more cells and becoming more dense.

The two types of exercise that are most effective for building strong bones are:

  1. weightbearing exercise and
  2. strength-training exercise.

Weightbearing describes any activity you do on your feet that works your bones and muscles against gravity. When your feet and legs carry your body weight, more stress is placed on your bones, making your bones work harder.

Examples of weightbearing activities include:

  • brisk walking and hiking,
  • jogging/running,
  • dancing,
  • stair climbing.

The most common strength training methods include:

  • using weight machines,
  • working with free weights, or
  • doing exercises that use your own body weight ( push-ups, for example ).

1.2.3 to joints

Normally, the two bones of a joint are cushioned with a strong flexible tissue called cartilage.

Cartilage doesn't have a blood supply; it relies on synovial fluid moving in and out of the joint to nourish it and take away waste products. Exercise helps this process.

Indulging in regular stretching exercises leads to enhanced cartilage nutrition.

1.2.4 to mood

Other benefits of exercise are:

  • less tension and stress
  • a natural energy boost
  • a sense of achievement
  • focus in life and motivation
  • a healthy appetite
  • opportunities for social interaction.

1.2.5 to health

It can dramatically cut your risk of stroke by enhancing blood flow to the brain. It also improves reasoning and memory.

Exercise is believed to speed the passage of food through the colon, thereby reducing the amount of time that any toxins are in contact with the body.

People who exercise regularly are less likely to get colds than those who exercise less. And if those who exercise get colds, the symptoms disappear more quickly than in those who do little exercise.

Regular exercise strengthens the heart.

Exercise can increase your resting metabolic rate, so you burn more calories while at rest.

Regular, moderate exercise increases the white cell count, improving the body’s ability to fight off infection. Exercise also increases the number of "killer cells", those special cells that are mobilized to fight serious diseases, and it increases the body's production of the antibody immunoglobulin A. Another way exercise boosts immunity is by reducing stress, since stress itself can depress the body's immune system.

People who exercise intensely and regularly tend to live longer.

1.2.6 to sleep

Exercise during the day promotes the onset and quality of sleep. The ideal time for exercise is in the morning. Exercising late in the day can contribute to sleeplessness.

1.2.7 to sexual life

Being fit improves libido and blood circulation.

1.3 get into a routine.

Choose a variety of physical activities you enjoy and think about how to fit more of them into your daily life. Try different activities until you find the ones that feel right for you. Exercising should be fun.

If you have not exercised for a long time, start with small amounts of physical activity and gradually increase duration, frequency and intensity over time ( to stay with your routine and minimize your risk of injury ).

duration ( for how long )
the length of time in which an activity or exercise is performed ( x minutes per session ).
frequency ( how often )
the number of times an exercise or activity is performed ( xx sessions per week ).
intensity ( how hard a person works to do the activity )
intensity refers to the rate at which the activity is being performed or the magnitude of the effort required to perform an activity or exercise.

No hacer ejercicio fisico en ayunas o inmediatamente despues de comer. La mejor hora para hacer ejercicio es lo antes posible despues de comer ( comida del mediodia ).

Empezar la sesión de ejercicio fisico a una menor intensidad, para calentar, y a medida que avanza la sesión ir aumentando la intensidad.

Durante los primeros 10 minutos de calentamiento priorizar el sentirse comodo durante la realizacion del ejercicio.

No finalizar de forma brusca.

1.4 listen to your body

Don't overtrain with too much intensity and volume over time. Immune system depression from over-training can lead to an increased likelihood of infectious disease, especially upper respiratory tract infections.

Difficulty falling asleep and fitful sleep are both signs of overtraining.

Your body is really good about "talking" to you:

  • sometimes your body tells you that you should stop working out for the day because your muscles, ligaments, or organs are straining, and injury is imminent.
  • other times, your body requires you to take an extended time off from working out because you have "over-trained" for an extended period of time, and you are better off resting for 1 or 2 weeks.

Of course, the challenge here is to discern

  • whether you really need to stop working out, or
  • whether you’re just being lazy and inventing excuses to go home.

Si un dia:

  • te sientes cansado antes de hacer ejercicio aerobico o si
  • tienes catarro o faringitis pero no tienes fiebre,


  1. realizar la sesión a una menor intensidad, y/o
  2. acortar su duracion, terminandola a los pocos minutos de comenzar si no experimentas ninguna mejoria en como te sientes.

Si sientes dolor o malestar cuando estas haciendo ejercicio , pasa, de inmediato, a hacerlo mas suavemente.

Si el dolor o molestia continuan disminuye la intensidad del ejercicio aun mas y así las veces que haga falta hasta que la molestia o el dolor desaparezca.

Si, por ejemplo, estas corriendo, puedes bajar la intensidad hasta andar, si fuese necesario.

Si el dolor o la molestia NO desaparecen por completo bajando la intensidad del ejercicio, entonces deja de hacer ejercicio por completo.

No entrenes nunca cuando estés lesionado o enfermo ( no hablamos de un simple catarro, claro ).

1.5 fitness components

Fit ➜ in good health, especially because of regular physical exercise

Fitness ➜ the quality or state of being fit

Being at a high level of physical fitness can be achieved through a combination of daily physical activity, exercise, and a healthy diet.

The 5 components of physical fitness that are most important, directly related to one’s health, are:

  1. cardiorespiratory endurance
  2. muscular endurance
  3. muscular strength
  4. flexibility and
  5. body composition.

Muscular endurance refers to the ability of your muscle or a group of muscles to repeatedly contract over a long period of time to overcome resistance without fatiguing.

Body composition is the amount of muscle, fat, bone, cartilage etc that makes up our bodies.

In terms of health, fat is the main point of interest and everything else is termed lean body tissue. It is important to maintain a healthy percentage of body fat because:

  1. excess body fat can contribute to developing a number of health problems such as heart disease and diabetes.
  2. places strain on the joints, muscles and bones, increasing the risk of injury

Muscular strength is important for our health as it enables us to:

  • avoid injuries
  • maintain good posture
  • remain independent ( in older age )

This type of fitness is brought about by sustained physical activity.

1.6 flexibility

Flexibility is the movement available at our joints, usually controlled by the length of our muscles.

Being flexible helps:

The most effective exercises for improving flexibility involve stretching of the major muscle groups of your body when the body is already warm, as it is after anaerobic exercise.

The safest exercises for improving flexibility involve static stretching. Static stretching techniques slowly and gradually lengthen a muscle or group of muscles and their tendons. The primary strategy is to decrease the resistance to stretch ( tension ) within a tight muscle targeted for increased range of motion.

To do this, you repeatedly stretch the muscle and its two tendons of attachment to elongate them. With each repetition of a static stretch, your range of motion improves temporarily due to the slightly lessened sensitivity of tension receptors in the stretched muscles, and when done regularly, range of motion increases.

Stretch slowly and gently only to the point of tension ( mild discomfort, but not pain ) in the muscle(s) you are stretching. Hold the stretch at this point for 10 to 30 seconds and repeat two or three times in relatively close succession.

Do not bounce or bob when you stretch.

Always complete each stretch for both sides of your body, when applicable.

1.7 aerobic exercise

El ejercicio aerobico es vital para el buen funcionamiento del corazon.

Cardiorespiratory endurance refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.

Regular exercise makes circulatory system more efficient by:

  • enlarging the heart muscle, enabling more blood to be pumped with each stroke, and
  • increasing the number of small arteries in trained skeletal muscles, which supply more blood to working muscles.

Aerobic exercise improves the respiratory system by increasing the amount of oxygen that is inhaled and distributed to body tissue.

Spread your sessions of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity throughout the week.

If your goal is to

Perform aerobic exercise at the maximum intensity you can sustain without requiring a break.

  1. increase duration first.
  2. increase frequency second.
  3. increase intensity gradually.

Alternate strength and cardiovascular training days.

Keep aerobic workouts shorter than 45 minutes.

1.7.1 who recommendations

  • engage in 300 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or
  • engage in 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or
  • an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous-intensity activity.

Aerobic activity should be performed in bouts of at least 10 minutes duration.

If you would like to be exercising at moderate intensity, you should work towards 60%-70% of your heart rate reserve ( hrr ).

If you are aiming for vigorous intensity, you should work above 70% of you hrr.

> swimming <- T; age <- 45; mhr <- 206.9 - .67 * age - 15 * swimming

> rhr <- 45; ve <- c ( 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 ) / 100

> rbind ( as.numeric ( ve ), round (( mhr - rhr ) * ve + rhr ))

The measurement of resting heart rate ( rhr ) or pulse rate ( the number of heart beats per minute ) should be taken after a good night’s sleep and after a few minutes upon waking while still lying in bed . Give your body some time to adjust to the change from sleeping before taking your pulse ( 2-5 minutes ). Take the average of three mornings’ readings for greater accuracy.

Your heart beats slower in water than on land because your lower body temperature in water slows your metabolism. Swimming slows your heart rate even more because the water supports your weight and your heart delivers oxygen to your body with less effort when your body is horizontal.

1.7.2 stationary bike

Before starting out riding, properly adjust your stationary bike:

  1. begin by standing next to the bike and set the seat height so it is even with your hip height so, when you sit on the bike, your leg is nearly fully extended at the bottom on the pedal stroke.
  2. make sure the seat is tilted slightly forward to maximize the push and power you produce.
  3. align the handlebars so they are higher than the seat. You want your lower back, arms and shoulder to be relaxed when stretched out to grab them. Set the handlebars so your weight feels equally distributed between your arms and your buttocks.

While riding, engage your core and make sure that you move your hips.

When you pedal, think of pedaling in squares. This means

  1. to push your foot forward on the top section of the square and
  2. down against the front side.
  3. along the bottom, act like you are scraping mud off the bottom of your shoe. Engage your hip flexors to do this.
  4. finally, pull up the backside of the square.

Apply pressure to the pedal through the entire revolution and not just on the downward portion.

1.7.3 swimming

Mojate en la ducha antes de entrar en la piscina.

Si la temperatura del agua cuando te sumerges en la piscina resulta incomoda, tenderas a esprintar durante los primeros largos. En caso de que esto suceda, es mejor hacer un calentamiento fuera del agua: ejercicios de movilidad articular que

  • aumenten la temperatura corporal y
  • activen el metabolismo.

En la patada de croll, el movimiento se empieza desde la cadera.

If you choose front strokes, consider a snorkel to eliminate the need to jerk the neck back for air. When you tire, rest to prevent using improper form.

Utilizar un tubo de respiración y una máscara te puede ayudar a disminuir el giro del cuello cuando respiras.

Es muy recomendable nadar braza con un tubo de respiración para evitar la presión en el cuello que se crea al subir y bajar para coger aire.

1.7.4 running

Running or jogging provides a great way to explore locations that you visit for business or travel. It can also be sustained for decades—if you do it in moderation. My advice is to cross-train with other activities ( e.g., cycling ) in order to minimize the wear and tear on your joints.

Inhale through the nose while pushing your abdomen out, then exhale through your mouth.

Do not listen to music while you run so that you can pay attention to what's happening with your body and focus on your technique.

As long as you’re running comfortably and injury-free, there’s no reason to believe that your form needs fixing.

Here are a few basics to help you maintain proper running form on any terrain:

  • maintain a short, quick stride.
  • make sure your foot strikes under your knee, not in front of it.
  • push up and off. Focus on pushing up and off the ground behind you.
  • keep your elbows bent at 90 degrees or less. You can occasionally drop your arms down to your sides and shake them out to reduce tension.
  • work your core. When starting a running program, it is also a great time to start working on your core strength, particularly your glutes and abdominal muscles. A strong core makes it easier to stay upright—even when you’re tired and avoid leaning too far forward from your hip, which can lead to injury.
  • relax your hands. Keep hands loose and below your chest. Make sure your hands don’t cross your midline and your hands don’t punch forward, both of which can throw off your gait. ( The midline is an imaginary line that divides the body into right and left halves ).

Fast hands = fast feet.

To run with a faster stride rate, you need to pull your hands up higher. You want the angle to be less than 90 degrees, which creates a shorter lever, so you can rock your arms at the shoulder joint more rapidly ( with a short movement ). Your feet will naturally follow the same cadence.

Subtle increases in step rate can substantially reduce the loading to the hip and knee joints during running and may prove beneficial in the prevention of common running-related injuries.

Focus on increasing your cadence.

Running efficiency is not so much a question of what part of the foot touches the ground first, but how close initial contact is to underneath the hips, i.e. your centre of mass:

A heel strike that lands close to the hips and on a bent knee causes no significant over-braking or over-loading to the knee.

If your foot lands in front of your knee then you are overstriding. This means that your foot lands far in front of your centre of gravity, producing a braking effect and an increased risk of injury. For running efficiency and pain-free training, aim for your foot to land directly under your front knee. This is especially important when running downhill.

Leaning forward places a runner's center of mass on the front part of the foot, which avoids landing on the heel and facilitates the use of the spring mechanism of the foot. It also makes it easier for the runner to avoid landing the foot in front of the center of mass and the resultant braking effect. Tened en cuenta que es una inclinación "desde los tobillos", es decir, sin doblar por las caderas hacia delante ni arquear la espalda hacia atrás.

Stand tall and lean forward, and when you feel like you are going to fall, step forward just enough to catch yourself. This should be the length of your stride. It takes less energy to fall than to reach your foot in front of you.

It’s important to thrust your chest out and lead with it.

While upright posture is essential, a runner should maintain a relaxed frame and use his/her core to keep posture upright and stable.

Run tall and keep your head upright.

  • torso vertical ( equilibrado sobre las caderas )
  • cuello vertical ( equilibrado sobre el torso )
  • cabeza vertical ( equilibrada sobre el cuello )
  • rodillas flexionadas y relajadas
  • tobillos relajados
  • pies relajados
  • brazos, hombros, manos, etc. ¡relajados!

You need to run with presence, like you own the path. Run like you are a person of high status. Try to stand as tall as you possibly can.

If you lack complete range of motion anywhere in your lower body, you are going to be more susceptible to injury. A good way to increase running-specific mobility is through Active Isolated Stretching, a method made popular by stretching guru Phil Wharton.

Here are some special considerations to make when you’re climbing a hill or making a descent:

Going up

  • keep our head and chest up
  • look straight ahead
  • keep your shoulders back
  • push up and off the hill, springing from your toes
  • keep your hands and fists loose

Going down

  • keep your body perpendicular to the ground
  • look straight ahead
  • visualize "controlled falling"
  • step softly; land lightly. Keep your feet as close to the ground as possible
  • engage your core
  • "circle" your stride. Keep the feet under the body and don’t overstride
  • keep contact time as minimal as possible
  • weave down. To take some pressure off the front of your knees and to help control your body on the downhill. Weave from one side of the road or trail to the other side, like you are skiing.
  • pelvis tucked. The best way to explain this is to slightly tuck the tailbone underneath your body to avoid over-arching the back ( which is bad for the back and hip flexors ).

Follow these basic training principles:

  • gradually increase your mileage and the amount of time you spend on your feet.
  • recover right. Give yourself plenty of time to recover any time you add distance or speed to your workouts.
  • introduce any changes gradually. If you do change your form, cut back the time you spend working out and the distance you cover.

1.8 anaerobic exercise ( muscle hyperthrophy )

1.8.1 benefits

When properly performed, strength training can provide significant functional benefits and improvement in overall health and well-being:

  • increases bone density and reduces the risk of osteoporosis,
  • improves joint function,
  • improves lipoprotein lipid profiles, including elevated HDL ("good") cholesterol.
  • increases bone, muscle, tendon and ligament strength and toughness,
  • controls your weight. As you gain muscle, your body's metabolism rate increases, thus enabling it to burn calories more efficiently.
  • reduces the risk of injury. Stronger muscles are able to support your joints better, and prevent them from injury. In addition, strength training increases neural functioning, improving reaction time, thus preventing injurious falls.
  • stimulates growth hormone production, which helps to keep you young.

1.8.2 volumen, intensity and duration

In a couple of words, training volume is amount of work done.

Training volume = sets x reps x weight

The heavier the weight, the less reps you will be able to perform per set, the more time you’ll need to fully recover between sets, the less total sets you’ll be able to perform, etc.

Your workout can last as long as you wish as long as you are able to maintain a high level of focus and strength all the way through in order to effectively stimulate your muscles and maintain proper form at all times.

1.8.3 sets, reps and rest between sets

A set consists of several repetitions performed one after another with no break between them. A repetition ( rep ) is one completion of an exercise: one chin-up, one squat, one arm curl.

Use only five-rep sets on your compound movements such as bench press. Compound exercises are movements that use multiple joints at one time.

After warming up, you start out with the heaviest weight you can handle for at least 5 repetitions, decrease the weight, and do more reps on the sets that follow.

You should rest as long as you need to in order to feel fully recovered from the previous set, and to where you’ll be able to execute the next set with maximum performance.

If that means resting 3 minutes after a set of deadlifts, 2 minutes after a set of dumbbell rows or 1.5 minutes after a set of lateral raises, that’s totally fine.

As a general over-arching guideline, you’ll probably find that a rest period anywhere between 1.5-3 minutes is appropriate for most lifts most of the time.

However, if you do feel that you require a bit more rest on a particular lift, or if you’re performing a very small isolation movement and feel fully recovered after only 1 minute, that’s okay too.

If you worked your shoulders, back, or chest and prefer not to take a seat, you can walk around the room. Another option: shake out your limbs to release any tension, and help keep yourself calm and loose between sets.

Se puede estirar entre serie y serie siempre y cuando no se estire los musculos que se estan ejercitando.

1.8.4 warm up

The first thing you should do upon entering the gym is to “systemically” warm-up on a bike or elliptical for 5-10 minutes in order to raise core body temperature. This is perhaps the most important preventative from injury. Next, some simple callisthenic exercises like shoulder rolls, arm rotations, side bends, etc, will help to loosen the joints and get blood flowing to the tendons, ligaments and muscles.

the best warm up for the exercise you are about to perform is actually performing the same exercise, just with lighter load. Such activity-specific warmup makes sure you prep specific muscles, tendons and ligaments that are about to be involved. It is recommended that you perform activity-specific warm up for each exercise you are about to do.

1.8.5 form and intensity

Some of the multi-joint movements that you can perform include eg presses, dead lifts, and squats.

Progressive overload must continually occur in order to induce adaptations and changes resulting in muscular hypertrophy. Regularly increasing resistance once a training weight becomes manageable.

Over time, start increasing the weight while performing the same number of repetitions.

Observe good lifting form for each exercise. Using good form not only helps you to maximize your gains, but it helps prevent serious injuries. Always learn and practice proper form before trying to go more heavy.

Aprende bien la técnica de los ejercicios de tu rutina y centrate en ejecutar los movimientos correctamente. Esto es más importante que mover pesos mayores.

La postura y ejecución de los ejercicios debe ser perfecta. No sacrifiques una buena postura del ejercicio por la carga.

1.9 functional fitness

Functional fitness exercises are designed to train and develop your muscles to make it easier and safer to perform everyday activities.

The focus of functional fitness is put on exercises that improve the quality of life.

Functional fitness exercises train your muscles to work together and prepare them for daily tasks by simulating common movements you might do at home or at work. While using various muscles in the upper and lower body at the same time, functional fitness exercises also emphasize core stability.

La fuerza funcional es la fuerza que involucra a todo el cuerpo. Se trata de la fuerza que se utiliza en la vida cotidiana.

¿Tu ejercicio se traduce en beneficios reales de fuerza que puedes usar en otras facetas de tu vida fuera del gimnasio?

¿Como aumentar la fuerza funcional?

Variedad Añade una gran variedad de ejercicios en tu rutina diaria. Utiliza diferentes formas de resistencia (pesas, bandas elásticas, maquinas de cables, bolsas de arena, etc.) y diferentes patrones de series o repeticiones. Trata de hacer ejercicios desde diferentes ángulos, así como crear desafíos de superación para tu cuerpo.

Acorta el tiempo de descanso entre los ejercicios. Trata de hacer ejercicios seguidos (realiza dos ejercicios diferentes conjuntos sin interrupción). Esto aumentará tu capacidad global de resistencia y tu capacidad aeróbica.

Functional exercises tend to be multijoint, multimuscle exercises. I

Other examples of specific functional fitness movements that use multiple joints and muscles include:

Multidirectional lunges Standing bicep curls Step-ups with weights

1.10 concurrent training

You can fit cardio and weight training into your regime, just pay attention to your recovery and levels of fatigue.

Which type of cardio exercise is best for powerlifters?

Low intensity steady state cardio such as riding a bike or a brisk walk.

Low-intensity cardio training is a lifters best friend. Here are some benefits:

  1. increased blood flow into working muscles for recovery in between lifting sessions.
  2. great for cardiovascular health ( low intensity training induces adaptions in the heart that high-intensity training simply can't ).
  3. act as an anti-depressant and improves mental health and short term memory.
  4. can be used as a form of active-meditation.

On rest days perform 70 minutes of steady state low-intensity cardio ( easy steady state, 65% of your maximum heart rate ).

Over time, as your aerobic capacity improves, sets that used to take 3 minutes for full recovery may only take 2 minutes.

Concurrent training leads to a significantly greater reduction in body fat percentage when compared to strength training alone or endurance training alone.

Non-impact forms of cardio may be a superior choice, because they require less recovery when compared to impact-based cardio exercises such as running.

1.11 core exercises

The body's core muscles are the foundation for all movement. Strengthening them can:

  1. help protect and support your back,
  2. make your spine and body less prone to injury and
  3. help you gain greater balance and stability.

In common parlance, the core of the body is broadly considered to be the torso. These muscles include:

  1. the deep back and
  2. abdominal muscles

that attach to the spine and pelvis.

Entre las claves para mejorar la fuerza funcional está fortalecer el core ( o músculos estabilizadores de los abdominales y espalda ). El core debe ofrecer una base sólida que maximice la transferencia de potencia a las extremidades.

Las máquinas de gimnasio deshabilitan estos músculos ( no tiene sentido entrenar sentado ), lo que deriva en extremidades fuertes y un core débil; receta perfecta para una lesión.

La mayoría de ejercicios deben realizarse sin soporte, idealmente de pie.

El entrenamiento de core requiere concentración e intensidad. Nuestros músculos se fortalecen y crecen cuando trabajamos con mayor intensidad y menor duración.

Todos los músculos de tu zona media trabajan de manera coordinada:

  1. recto abdominal
  2. oblicuos externos
  3. oblicuos internos
  4. transverso abdominal
  5. musculos que se insertan en la cadera, pelvis o columna lumbar:
    1. flexores y extensores de cadera ( psoas y gluteos entre otros )
    2. extensores de la columna ( erectores, cuadrados lumbares …),
    3. suelo pelvico

El 80% del entrenamiento de abdominales debe ser indirecto. Los mejores ejercicios para los abdominales no parecen ejercicios de abdominales. Los grandes levantamientos con barra ( como sentadilla y deadlift ) fortalecen tus abdominales.

Deja el trabajo abdominal directo para el final de la sesión. No es buena idea hacer sentadillas con una barra cargada en la espalda después de haber fatigado los abdominales.

1.12 despues de los 40

Staying injury-free should be your ultimate goal with your training.

Pick only movements you know you can perform pain-free. If going heavy on certain exercises causes you pain, just go light instead.

If you want to add muscle mass as fast as your genetics will allow, lifting heavy weights should still be the main focus of your training. But the addition of some high rep work to a program that already includes heavier training is a great way to get bigger.

To maximize muscle hypertrophy, an optimal workout should include low, medium, and high rep ranges.

  1. sets of 10-15 reps. You should finish with a rep or two "in the tank".
  2. sets of 25-35 reps to failure.

Significant gains in muscle strength and size can be acquired without the severe discomfort and fatigue associated with short rest intervals.

After the heavy work is done, now it’s time to have some fun. Choose some targeted movements and seek the pump and burn. Don’t work yourself up too much mentally, just bust out some medium to high rep sets with short rest periods.

One of my favorite ways to incorporate high rep training in my workouts is to use moderate-to-high repetitions ( 10-15 ) but with very short ( 30-40 seconds ) inter-set rest periods.

Tension through a full range of motion is what builds maximum muscle.

3 seconds down, no pause in the bottom, 1 second up ( 10 repetitions )

5 sets of 3 repetitions Tempo: As fast as possible 3-5 minutes rest between sets

Employ set rep schemes such as 4x8, 5x7, or 6x6 with a moderate rest period of around 60-120 seconds.

My general recommendation for people over the age of 35 is to keep the reps up to 10 or more for upper body so their joints don't take such a pounding.

The lower body, particularly the quads, tend to respond particularly well to higher reps, and the upper rep range is a bit higher for lower body than upper body. Twenty rep squat routines are very effective for legs, but the upper limit for most upper body exercises will be around 15.

Damage is created by either doing something that is unfamiliar, or by accentuating the eccentric component of an exercise. Therefore, variety is an important component to muscle damage as it ensures the targeting of different subdivisions and motor units of muscles.

Muscle groups composed of primarily slow-twitch fibers, such as deltoids or calves, may respond best to a slightly higher rep range (10-15 reps).

If you have been using a specific amount of reps for a while then change it up. Rep ranges only have a limited shelf life before the body starts to get bored with the stimulus and you will start to experience limited adaptations.

A two seconds up, three seconds down cadence.

Perform resistance-training exercise three to five days per week for 60 minutes or less. Training longer causes the stress hormone cortisol to catabolize muscle.

Keep workouts to 20-45 minutes.

Perform the highest volume of work ( sets and reps ) in the shortest time possible. Use a cadence of 2-4 seconds on the positive and 3-5 seconds on the negative to maintain constant tension on the muscles.

If you want to include some higher-rep training in your workouts, that’s fine, but save it for after your heavy lifting.

Take at least one day off the weights each week. Two is better.

Even when you’re properly managing your volume and intensity and taking a couple days off each week, your body eventually needs a bigger break.

When you sense the fog of overtraining creeping in around you, get out of the gym for a week and it’ll dissipate.

Specifically, you can take a few additional days off or you can “deload,” which is a reduction in training intensity to give your body a break from the heavy pounding.

Plancha: 1 serie de 5, 5 de 7

  1. you warm up to prepare your muscles for heavy loads.
  2. you start with your heaviest lifts.
  3. you progress to higher rep ranges.

2 hydration

Necesitamos unos tres litros de agua al día como mínimo.

Also noted is that normally, about 20% of water intake comes from food, while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages.

Existen determinadas situaciones o momentos de la vida donde las necesidades de tomar agua aumentan como son:

  • cuando tenemos fiebre.
  • en lugares donde hay una temperatura ambiental elevada.
  • las mujeres en la lactancia.
  • cuando se realiza ejercicio físico de manera intensa.

En estos casos, hay que elevar el consumo de agua para evitar problemas de deshidratación.

Chequeá tu estado de hidratación con el color de la orina: debe ser clara y abundante.

Try not to drink to the point where you feel full from water alone.

Es muy importante que la persona que practique una actividad deportiva esté adecuadamente hidratada durante todo el día, es decir, antes, durante y después del esfuerzo físico que realice.

Las bebidas isotónicas NO son imprescindibles y en actividades de menos de una hora, NO presentan prácticamente ventajas respecto al agua y el resto de solutos ( sodio, glucosa, etc. ) se reponen en la siguiente comida.

To stay hydrated you need to intake small amount of fluid during exercise.

Drink about 500 mL of cool water 1 to 2 hours before you exercise.

Drink about 500 mL of cool water 15 minutes before you exercise.

Como pauta general podemos establecer la ingesta de unos 150 ml cada 10 minutos.

La deshidratación puede causar calambres, contracturas, y un mayor riesgo de lesiones musculotendinosas.

3 diet

El cenar tarde hace que tengamos dificultades para dormir.

Lo ideal es comer 3 veces al dia. Evita comer entre comidas.

Los micronutrientes, es decir, las vitaminas y los minerales, no necesitan ser consumidos a diario; basta con tomar las cantidades adecuadas regularmente.

45-65% carbohydrate 10-35% protein 20-35% fat

Eat roughly the same amount of calories that your body is using.

Get plenty of nutrient-dense foods ( within the context of flexible dieting obviously ).

Los huevos es uno de los alimentos mas completos que existen.

Choose good carbohydrates:

  • whole grains ( the less processed the better ),
  • non-starchy vegetables,
  • fruits and
  • legumes ( beans, peas, lentils, soybeans ).


  • white bread,
  • white rice,
  • pastries,
  • azúcares
  • carbohidratos refinados
  • sugary drinks,
  • trans fats,
  • processed meats, and
  • other highly-processed food
  • comidas pobres nutricionalmente

Limit consumption of:

  • energy rich ( dense ) foods,
  • red meat,
  • saturated fat, and
  • salt.

Ensure that salt is iodized.

3.1 proteins

El ácido úrico deriva del metabolismo de las purinas que pueden encontrarse en cantidades variables en los alimentos.

En caso de tener el ácido úrico alto en sangre deberiamos consumir proteinas procedentes de lácteos y huevos que tienen menos purinas pero son de la misma calidad que las proteinas que poseen las carnes.

proteinas de una taza de leche entera ( 250ml ) ➜ 7.5g proteinas de un yogurt natural entero ( 125 g ) ➜ 4.3g huevo mediano ( 60g ) ➜ 7.5g

La leche entera produce el mayor índice de saciedad, y a diferencia de la leche desnadata y semidesnatada, no provoca una alteración tan brusca de la glucemia sanguínea.

Es mejor cocinar los huevos sin pasar excesivamente la yema.

Si tienes dudas sobre el estado de un huevo, sumérgelo en agua: Si se hunde, lo puedes comer.

Es sano comer tres huevos al dia.

En Europa, cada huevo tiene un código, cuyo primer número indica el tipo de producción:

  • jaulas ( 3 )
  • suelo ( 2 )
  • gallinas camperas ( 1 )
  • ecológico ( 0 )

Existen diferencias importantes en su composición nutricional (fuente).

Por otra parte, aunque los niveles de contaminación son bajos en todos los casos, los ecológicos o camperos tienen una concentración menor de sustancias potencialmente tóxicas ( estudio ).

En la medida de lo posible prioriza huevos ecológicos o camperos ( códigos 0 y 1 ).

3.1.1 Brown rice

To cut down on the cooking time for brown or wild rice, soak it overnight. Soaking whole grains also helps reduce their content of phytic acid, an enzyme inhibitor that prevents minerals from being absorbed by the body.

Put brown rice and water together in a pot with a lid. For long-grain brown rice, use 1 1/4 cups water to 1 cup rice. For short-grain, use 1 1/2 cups water.

3.1.2 Ayuno

Nuestros genes no sólo están preparados para estar tiempo sin comer, sino que lo esperan, lo necesitan.

Para alguien bien adaptado a quemar grasa en vez de azúcar, es mejor hacer pocas comidas grandes, que muchas pequeñas.

Además, las comidas deberían concentrarse en un período reducido del día, maximizando el período de ayuno diario. Por ejemplo, ayunar cada día durante 16 horas, y concentrar las comidas en 8 horas.

3.2 legumbres

3.2.1 como cocinarlas

Preparación de las legumbres:

el proceso empieza con el remojo. A medida que se forma una espuma en la superficie, se enjuaga y se cambia el agua. Se continúa este proceso por 48 horas.

Tirar ese agua de remojo, lavar las legumbres, colocarlas en la olla, cubrirlas totalmente de agua y llevarlas a ebullición sin tapa.

Quitar la espuma que se va formando cuando las legumbres van hirviendo, durante unos 10 minutos.

Retirar también todas las pieles que puedan estar en la superficie sueltas. Después de quitar "lo gordo" de la espuma, todavía quedan restos en el agua de cocción. Es conveniente tirar ese agua con restos de espuma, volviendo a poner las legumbres en la olla y añadiendo agua hirviendo ( cuatro dedos de agua por encima del nivel de las legumbres aproximadamente ).

Si añadimos agua fría a unas legumbres que ya estaban hirviendo se cerrarán y quedarán duras, así que hay que poner agua a calentar al principio del todo para que esté lista cuando tiremos el primer agua con los restos de espuma. Esa espuma concentra las purinas y saponinas de las legumbres y es muy importante quitar toda la posible.

la mayoría de legumbres no contienen los aminoácidos esenciales que necesitamos ( a excepción de las alubias de soja ), por eso deben combinarse con cereales, semillas y frutos secos.

comiendo también un cereal integral en la misma comida (arroz, mijo, quinoa, avena, cebad a…)

La legumbres se ponen siempre a cocer en agua fría, a excepción nuevamente de los garbanzos, que deberemos ponerlos siempre a cocer en agua hirviendo.

Cada vez que se añada agua mientras se cuecen las legumbres, esta deberá estar fría excepto, una vez más, con los garbanzos. Es más, conviene no poner mucho líquido de principio e ir añadiendo según se necesite. Este modo de cortar el hervor con agua fría se llama "asustar" a las legumbres y, según he oído siempre, conviene hacerlo tres veces.

Cuando las legumbres se cuecen primero solas para confeccionar después el plato con otros ingredientes, conviene que no estén tan solas al cocer como podría pensarse. Un casco de cebolla, unos ajos enteros, laurel o hierbas aromáticas y unos granos de pimienta mejorarán su sabor. Una vez cocidas se retira todo.

A las legumbres podemos darles forma de croqueta y freírlas.

Como 12 horas es el tiempo óptimo, lo mejor será que las pongamos en remojo la víspera del día anterior. Siempre debemos utilizar agua fría, salvo con los garbanzos, a los que conviene más el agua templada.

La legumbres se ponen siempre a cocer en agua fría, a excepción nuevamente de los garbanzos, que deberemos ponerlos siempre a cocer en agua hirviendo.

La cocción debe ser siempre a fuego moderado o lento, nunca a borbotones. Un hervor vivo rompe las legumbres, las deja de un aspecto lamentable y hace que los hollejos se desprendan.

Las lentejas y alubias se ponen en la olla con agua fría, los garbanzos se echan cuando ya está caliente, cubriendo un par de dedos. Los primeros minutos deben hervir a fuego alegre para que salga la típica espuma que hay que retirar. ¿Y cuánto tiempo se deben cocer?

No se debe remover nunca la olla con cuchara para no romperlas.

Tiempos de cocción en la hoya a presion:

  1. lentejas ➜ 10, 15 minutos
  2. garbanzos ➜ 20, 25 minutos
  3. judias ➜ 15, 18 minutos

La cocción prolongada a fuego lento hace que los azúcares indigestos se descompongan en otros más simples y fáciles de digerir. Esto es, unas legumbres cocinadas íntegramente a fuego lento serán menos indigestas que otras cocinadas solo en la olla ultrarápida.

Las alubias se empiezan a cocinar con agua fría pero, a diferencia de lentejas y garbanzos, si añadimos más agua durante la cocción, debe ser fría. De hecho, aún sin ser necesario, conviene añadir 2 o 3 veces durante la cocción un chorrito de agua fría para “asustarlas”, con eso se consigue un caldo más espeso y sabroso.

Cook: Put beans into a large pot and cover with 2 inches of water . Don't add salt at this point since that slows the beans' softening. Slowly bring to a boil, skimming off any foam on the surface. Reduce heat, cover and simmer.

Excessive heat can make soaking beans ferment, so when it’s hot out, put soaking beans in the fridge.

Don't throw away the liquid you cooked the beans in ( use it instead of water the next time you make soup ).

Do not add salt while soaking or during the first hour of cooking.

After soaking, you have two choices:

Drain the soaking water, rinse the beans, and cook with fresh water Cook with the soaking water

The first reduces flatulence, while the second provides more nutrients.

Cocción prolongada, que descompone los oligosacáridos —que son los culpables— y los convierte en azúcares simples más fácilmente digeribles.

¿Cómo se cocinan las principales legumbres? Durante los primeros 5 o 10 minutos todas las legumbres deben hervirse a fuego rápido y sin tapar, para que se destruyan las impurezas y podamos eliminarlas desespumando el agua.

Alubias: se comienzan a cocinar con agua fría. Garbanzos: se comienzan a cocinar en agua caliente. Lentejas: se comienzan a cocinar en agua fría.

No se mete nunca la cuchara, siempre se mueve la cacerola.

Si necesitan más agua mientras estamos cocinándolas ¿qué se añade? ¿agua caliente o fría?

Alubias: agua fría, hasta 3 veces si es necesario Garbanzos: agua hirviendo para no interrumpir su cocción y que no se encallen Lentejas: se añadirá agua tibia para no interrumpir el hervor

¿Cuándo se añade la sal a la legumbre? Al final de la cocción, para evitar que la piel se endurezca.

If you throw out the soaking water, you also throw out lots of nutrients. Recent research suggests that long slow cooking is a better solution and probably gets rid of more of the flatulence-causing components than a soak followed by a quick cook. And you get to retain more nutrients.

3.2.2 lentejas

Las lentejas son las más nutritivas de todas las legumbres por su gran contenido en fósforo, calcio, potasio, zinc, hierro y en vitaminas del complejo B. Las que menos tiempo necesitan en remojo, basta con dejarlas la noche y al otro dia enjuagar.

3.2.3 lograr brotes de lentejas

Poner en remojo con agua por 7 horas. Enjuagar, dejar humedecidas. Cada cierto tiempo ( 4 hrs ) remojar. Según pasan los días ( 3 a 5 días ), verás los brotes.

3.2.4 legumbres, arroz integral y nueces

El ácido fítico se "une" y hace in-absorbible ciertos minerales menos importantes como el hierro y el zinc y en menor cantidad, también macro-minerales como el calcio y magnesio.

Colocar los granos, nueces o legumbres en agua tibia, una proporción de 4 veces agua por una de granos es la recomendable.

Para las legumbres y granos añadir, salvo en el caso de las lentejas, un medio ácido com vinagre de manzana. (ver tabla).

Una cucharada de por cada taza de agua es ideal.

Cuando los remojos son largos se debe cambiar el agua cada ocho horas y descartar dicha agua.

You will want to use a ratio of at least 2:1. Two parts water to 1 part nuts or seeds.

  tr vm sal ca
garbanzos 8 si no 2
brown rice 8 si no 0
almonds 10 no si 2
hazelnuts 10 no si 0
lentejas 8 no no 0
sunflower seeds 8 si si 0
pumpkin seeds 8 si si 0
nueces 8 si si 0
trigo sarraceno 6 si no 0
oat groats 6 si si 0

tr = tiempo de remojo ( en horas ).

vm = una cucharada de vinagre de manzana por cada taza de agua.

sa = remojar en agua con sal marina en proporción de una cucharada de sal por cada dos y media tazas de agua utilizadas para remojo.

ca = cambio de agua.

Las nueces una vez remojadas se pueden conservar en nevera por unos tres a cinco días, para conservarlas mas tiempo pueden deshidratarse secándolas completamente al sol para lo cual van a requerir varios días.

Con el remojo el gluten y otras proteínas difíciles de digerir se descomponen en partículas mas sencillas que son más fáciles de absorber.

Las enzimas que promueven la generación de gases y los trisacáridos se quedan en buena parte dentro del agua del remojo, siendo así otro coadyuvante digestivo de importancia.

La rafinosa es un trisacarido que se encuentra en muchas plantas leguminosas y crucíferas como guisantes, col, y brócoli. Es indigestible por los seres humanos y se fermenta en el intestino grueso por bacterias que producen gas.

El remojo también facilita la cocción haciéndola más rápida.

Al remojar minimizamos o eliminamos los inhibidores enzimáticos, los fitatos ( ácido fítico ), los polifenoles ( taninos ) y goitrinas. Estas sustancias suelen ser llamadas también antinutrientes por su efecto negativo a nivel digestivo y nutricional.

Raw nuts also contain a significant amount of enzyme inhibitors, which act to prevent the nut or seed from sprouting prematurely in nature. Yet these enzyme inhibitors can also bind up minerals and and cause digestive strain for nut-munching humans.

When soaking grains or beans, a more acidic substance is often used, but since nuts and seeds contain less phytic acid than grains/legumes but more enzyme inhibitors, the salt is more beneficial.

3.3 butter from grass-fed cows

Butter from grass-fed cows is much higher in Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin K2, compared to butter from grain-fed cows.

In countries where cows are largely grass-fed, the people who eat the most butter seem to have a drastically reduced risk of heart disease.

Earlier experiments have shown that cows on a diet of fresh grass produce milk with five times as much of an unsaturated fat called conjugated linoleic acid ( cla ) than do cows fed processed grains. Studies in animals have suggested that cla can protect the heart, and help in weight loss.

3.4 alcohol

No beberr bebidas alcoholicas porque no existe suficiente evidencia de que el consumo moderado de alcohol sea bueno para la salud.

3.5 calcium

Good sources of calcium are:

  • figs
  • soy milk
  • beans
  • almonds
  • hazelnuts
  • broccoli
  • pistachio
  • sesame
  • yogurt
  • milk

3.6 desayuno

  • "¿Tienes hambre al levantarte?". Si no es así, escucha a tu cuerpo y no comas. Si tienes hambre, come.
  • "¿Tomar desayuno te hace luego tener hambre a mitad de mañana? Si te tomas una tostada y un zumo de naranja por la mañana (azúcares refinados, de corto recorrido), tienes hambre 2 o 3 horas después?. Si es así, no desayunes.

    Retrasa el desayuno todo lo posible.

3.7 indice glicemico

Insuline es a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas. When you eat a meal, your blood glucose ( sugar ) rises after you digest the food. Insulin goes into action, binding with your cells in order to store the glucose.

The actions of insulin on cells include:

  1. increased glycogen synthesis. Insulin forces storage of glucose in liver ( and muscle ) cells in the form of glycogen; lowered levels of insulin cause liver cells to convert glycogen to glucose and excrete it into the blood.
  2. increased lipid synthesis. Insulin forces fat cells to take in blood glucose, which is converted into triglycerides; decrease of insulin causes the reverse.

If you are healthy, the body "prefers" to replenish glycogen first, only storing excess glucose as fat if glycogen stores are topped off.

Insulin resistance ( IR ) implies that the body's cells (primarily muscle) lose sensitivity to insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas to promote glucose utilization. At the molecular level, a cell senses insulin through insulin receptors.

Once established, insulin resistance would result in increased circulating levels of insulin. Since insulin is the primary hormonal signal for energy storage into fat cells, which tend to retain their sensitivity in the face of hepatic and skeletal muscle resistance, IR stimulates the formation of new fatty tissue and accelerates weight gain

Glycogen forms an energy reserve that can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for glucose, but one that is less compact than the energy reserves of triglycerides ( lipids ).

In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles.

As a meal containing carbohydrates or protein is eaten and digested, blood glucose levels rise, and the pancreas secretes insulin. Glucose molecules are added to the chains of glycogen found in liver as long as both insulin and glucose remain plentiful.

The glycogen muscle cells store is available solely for internal use and is not shared with other cells. This is in contrast to liver cells, which, on demand, readily do break down their stored glycogen into glucose and send it through the blood stream as fuel for other organs.

Una vez los depósitos de glucógeno están llenos, la insulina se encarga de que todo el resto del exceso de glucosa se convierta en el hígado en triglicéridos y se almacene en el cuerpo en forma de grasa.

La insulina no solo almacena grasa sino que, mientras la insulina se mantenga elevada en la sangre, impedirá que podamos acceder a esa grasa como forma de energía ( inhibe la lipolisis ). No te deja quemar grasas. Sólo cuando la insulina se retira de la escena podemos quemar grasas, principalmente en los periodos de ayuno como en el sueño o cuando separamos comidas.

Glucemia = glucosa que circula por la sangre.

Para ayudar a clasificar los alimentos según la velocidad con la que elevan la glucosa en sangre se creó el concepto de índice glucémico.

Los alimentos líquidos o muy troceados se absorben con mayor rapidez que aquellos otros menos elaborados. Por ejemplo, será mas bajo el índice glucémico de una pieza de fruta que de un zumo.

Los alimentos ricos en grasas o en fibra se digieren con mayor lentitud, por lo que también producen un incremento de la glucemia más lento.

Por ejemplo, un alimento muy rico en azúcares como el helado tiene un índice glucémico bajo, pues también contiene una gran cantidad de grasa. Sucede lo mismo con los alimentos ricos en fibra. Así, los cereales integrales poseen un índice glucémico más bajo que los cereales refinados. Son muy populares los casos de la pizza o las lentejas. Son platos con alto contenido en hidratos de carbono pero también con gran cantidad de grasas (pizza) o fibra (legumbres).

What happens when you freeze then toast white bread? You get bread with a 39% lower glycemic index.

4 grasa corporal

Para adelgazar:

  1. Bebe un vaso de agua antes de cada comida. Al llenarnos el estómago, comemos menos. Y da aún mejor resultado si el agua es fría, porque así provoca la contracción del estómago y hace que tengamos menos hambre.
  2. Desayune bien. El ayuno prolongado pone el metabolismo en forma de ahorro, es decir, revierte el metabolismo de la insulina y hace que almacenemos más grasa.
  3. Servir las raciones en platos pequeños. El simple hecho de ver un plato pequeño rebosante nos sacia más que ver uno grande a medias, aunque la cantidad de comida sea mayor en el segundo caso que en el primero.
  4. Masticar mucho cada bocado. Nuestro cerebro tarda alrededor de 20 minutos en enviarnos la señal neuronal de que estamos saciados y si durante ese intervalo de tiempo comemos muy deprisa, comeremos de más.
  5. Dormir bien y en una habitacion fresquita.
  6. Practicar ejercicio moderado a diario. Y no solo porque el ejercicio contribuye a quemar grasa, sino porque el bienestar que proporciona ( la liberación de endorfinas) facilita el control del apetito.

5 sleep well

Cuando la mañana siguiente tengas que estar despierto antes de cierta hora, vete a la cama, por lo menos, ocho horas y media antes de la hora a la que pongas el despertador.

If you’re getting enough sleep, you should wake up naturally without an alarm.

5.1 nap and night's sleep

Be kind to yourself: take a nap every day.

Limit the nap in the early afternoon to 30 minutes to sleep well at night. Don't nap in the evening before you go to bed.

5.2 que comer y beber, y cuando, para tener un buen sueño nocturno

  • avoid alcohol 4-6 hours before bedtime. While alcohol has an immediate sleep-inducing effect, a few hours later as the alcohol levels in your blood start to fall, there is a stimulant or wake-up effect.
  • avoid caffeine 4-6 hours before bedtime. This includes caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea and many sodas, as well as chocolate.
  • cena al menos dos horas antes de irte a la cama. Avoid heavy, spicy, or sugary foods 4-6 hours before bedtime.
  • foods high in the amino acid tryptophan may help you to sleep: milk, yogurt, bananas, chicken, turkey, eggs, fish, lamb, oats, chickpeas, sunflower seeds, sesame, dried dates, etc
  • avoid drinking too many liquids in the evening. Drinking lots of fluids may result in frequent bathroom trips throughout the night.

5.3 actividad previa al sueño nocturno

  • reserve the bed for sleep and sex. Let your body "know" that the bed is associated with sleeping.
  • a menos que estes tan cansado que vayas a dormirte a los 5 minutos de apoyar la cabeza en la almohada, no te vayas a la cama.
  • go to bed at the same time every night. The body "gets used" to falling asleep at a certain time, but only if this is relatively fixed.
  • no lleves nunca a la cama problemas personales, escolares, familiares o de otro tipo. Debes solucionarlos antes de acostarte o dejarlos "aparcados" para el dia siguiente. Don't take your worries to bed. Leave your worries behind when you go to bed.
  • exercise regularly, but not right before bed. Regular exercise, particularly in the afternoon, can help deepen sleep. Complete the workout at least 3 hours before bedtime.
  • antes de irte a la cama, dedica una hora a serenarte realizando actividades apacibles y relajantes. Practice relaxation techniques before bed.
  • establece habitos regulares antes de irte a la cama. Establish a pre-sleep ritual. Pre-sleep rituals can help you sleep. Establish a consitent relaxing "wind-down" bedtime routine.

    Relaxing bedtime ritual:

    1. asegurate de que las tareas a realizar el dia siguiente esten escritas antes de apagar la luz; asi podras dormir mejor.
    2. make simple preparations for the next day.
    3. antes de acostarte: haz pis, lavate los dientes y lavate la cara.

Para relajar los ojos se puede poner alguna prenda pequeña de tacto suave sobre los mismos una vez se esta ya en la cama.

5.4 silencio y comodidad

  • duerme con prendas cómodas que no te molesten ni aprieten. En verano, elige sábanas y ropa de dormir de tejidos naturales, como el algodón, que son frescos y absorben la transpiración.
  • most people sleep best in a slightly cool room ( 18° C ) with adequate ventilation. La temperatura ambiente ideal está entre los 18 y los 22 grados tanto en invierno como en verano.
  • un somier y un colchón no son para siempre: transcurridos diez años, deberíamos pensar en comprar otros nuevos. Los colchones de látex son los más duraderos y se adaptan a los movimientos sin perder la firmeza.
  • asegúrate de que el colchón soporte tu cuerpo de manera que se mantenga la alineación natural de la columna.
  • voltea regularmente el colchón para que el desgaste sea parejo, y te proporcione un soporte consistente.
  • block out all distracting noise.
  • duerme de lado con las rodillas dobladas y una almohada o cojin entre ellas. Sin embargo, si debes dormir bocarriba, coloca una almohada debajo de las rodillas, para ayudar a mantener las curvas naturales de la columna.
  • debes evitar dormir bocabajo con la cabeza hacia un lado, o dormir con una almohada muy grande.

5.5 light and night's sleep

  • melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone that helps regulate your sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin production is controlled by light exposure. Your brain should secrete more in the evening, when it’s dark, to make you sleepy, and less during the day when it’s light and you want to stay awake and alert.
  • try to spend some daytime outdoors or in natural light. Sunlight early in the day is particularly helpful in synchronising your body clock. Remove your sunglasses in the morning and let light onto your face. Let as much light into your home/workspace as possible. Keep curtains and blinds open during the day, move your desk closer to the window.
  • exposure to electrical light between dusk and bedtime strongly suppresses melatonin levels and may impact physiologic processes regulated by melatonin signaling, such as sleepiness, thermoregulation, blood pressure and glucose homeostasis. It is principally blue light, around 460 to 480nm, that suppresses melatonin, increasingly with increased light intensity and length of exposure. Wearing glasses that block blue light in the hours before bedtime may avoid melatonin loss. Light containing only wavelengths greater than 530 nm does not suppress melatonin in bright-light conditions.
  • avoid bright lights before bed, use low-wattage bulbs instead.
  • atenúa las luces antes de irte a la cama. Turn off your television. Not only does the light suppress melatonin production, but television can actually stimulate the mind, rather than relaxing it.
  • don’t read from a backlit device at night ( such as a computer ).
  • if you need to go to the bathroom in the evening or during the night, do not turn on the light. If neccessary, a very dim nightlight ( or indirect light from the hall ) is OK.
  • baja las persianas y/o corre las cortinas si crees que la luz del dia puede despertarte por la mañana.

5.6 ways to get back to sleep

  • make rest your goal, not sleep. Remind yourself that although they are not a replacement for sleep, rest and relaxation still help rejuvenate your body.
  • if you wake up in the middle of the night, do not get up or switch on the light. Have sex instead. Do it yourself. You will crash into pleasant deep sleep afterwards.

6 ergonomics

Plan your work and play so that you are not doing the same thing for extended periods of time ( such as performing the same activity or using the same part of your body ).

Supervisors should ensure that workload controls are exercised using the following strategies:

  • planning ahead to avoid peaks, and rushed jobs
  • delegating fairly to all staff not just the best workers
  • considering the total workload of the individual ( often comes from a number of sources )

no longer than 50 minutes per hour without a postural/stretching break.

6.1 Keyboard

Guidelines to configure keybindings in emacs:

  1. Home row keys are the best.
  2. 2nd and 3rd fingers ( pointing finger and index finger ) are better than 4th ( ring finger ) and 5th finger ( pinky ).
  3. The row above home row is considered better than the row below home row for 2nd and 3rd fingers, but for 5th finger the row below is better. ( extending fingers is slightly more comfortable than curling into a fist. For the pinky, the top row is more difficult to reach.)
  4. Right hand's keys are considered better than left hand's keys ( because most people are right handed ).
  5. Alt is considered better than Ctrl ( Alt is a natural thumb curl, Ctrl is stretched pinky. Thumb is most powerful finger, pinkie the weakest ).
  6. In general, cursor moving commands are placed all for the right hand, while text changing commands are all placed for the left hand ( grouping advantage ).
  7. Similar commands should be grouped together to avoid scattering. For example:
    • cursor moving by single char is together ( i j k l )
    • undo, cut, copy, paste are together ( z x c v )
    • delete char/word left/right are together ( e r d f ).
  8. commands with logical reversal or extension are done with shift key, after other priorities are considered. Examples:
    • find replace by string/regex,
    • isearch forward/backward,
    • move cursor by beginning/ending of line
    • delete line to the right/left.

Mantenga rectas las muñecas al escribir. Situe las manos sobre el teclado en un ángulo de al menos 90 grados con respecto a los codos. Mantenga los dedos ligeramente curvados hacia abajo.

El reposamuñecas incluido solo debe utilizarse durante las pausas en las que no escribe.

6.2 Monitor

Set the eye-to-screen distance at the distance that permits you to most easily focus on the screen. Usually this will be within an arm's length.

Set the height of the monitor so that the top of the screen is below eye level and the bottom of the screen can be read without a marked inclination of the head. Usually this means that the centre of the screen will need to be near shoulder height. Your eyes should be level with the tool bar.

Situe el monitor al nivel de los ojos, minimizando la flexion del cuello mientras escribe.

6.3 Light

Do not have a great amount of contrast between the page and the surrounding environment. The ambient light should not be greatly brighter or dimmer than what is being read.

6.4 Shoulders

Sitting upright with a 90-90-90 posture ( 90 degree angle at ankles, knees, and hips) is hard on the back. Sitting straight upright like this causes the pelvis to rotate back and leads to tension and flattening in the low back.

This flattening of the spine in the low back significantly increases lumbar disc pressure. If you prefer to sit upright, raise the chair and tilt the seat pan forward/down in front so the thighs are declined. Opening the hip angle with declined thighs, or reclining against the back cushion reduces low back tension and strain.

The closer an object, the harder your eyes work to focus. Place the screen as far away as possible, provided you can read it easily. Adjust font size if necessary.

6.5 Posture

Position your body comfortably. Not only can this improve your overall productivity, it may help you avoid MSDs. Keep in mind that changing your posture during extended tasks may also help you avoid discomfort and fatigue.

When working at the computer, adapt your surroundings and arrange your computing equipment to promote a comfortable and relaxed body posture. Position your body comfortably. Not only can this improve your overall productivity, it may help you avoid MSDs. Keep in mind that changing your posture during extended tasks may also help you avoid discomfort and fatigue.

When working at the computer, adapt your surroundings and arrange your computing equipment to promote a comfortable and relaxed body posture.

No matter how perfect the environment, prolonged, static postures will inhibit blood circulation and take a toll on your body. You need to move and change positions regularly throughout the day. Get up and move on your breaks. Change your posture at frequent intervals to minimise fatigue.

The best way to reduce pressure in the back is to be in a standing position. When sitting, the main part of the body weight is transferred to the seat. Some weight is also transferred to the floor, back rest, and armrests.

The lumbar ( bottom five vertebrate in the spine ) needs to be supported to decrease disc pressure. Providing both a seat back that inclines backwards and has a lumbar support is critical to prevent excessive low back pressures. The combination which minimizes pressure on the lower back is having a backrest inclination of 120 degrees and a lumbar support of 5 cm:

  • the 120 degrees inclination means the angle between the seat and the backrest should be 120 degrees
  • the lumbar support of 5 cm means the chair backrest supports the lumbar by sticking out 5 cm in the lower back area.

One drawback to creating an open body angle by moving the backrest backwards is that it takes one's body away from the tasking position, which typically involves leaning inward towards a desk or table.

Another key to reducing lumbar disc pressure is the use of armrests. They help by putting the force of your body not entirely on the seat and back rest, but putting some of this pressure on the armrests. Armrest needs to be adjustable in height to assure shoulders are not overstressed.

6.6 Breaks

If you’re sitting for long periods it’s really important you take regular breaks by getting up on your feet. Long periods of inactivity are not good for the heart.

Plenty of breaks, even if they are as short as one minute, seem to be beneficial. Take frequent short rest breaks rather than infrequent longer ones.

Get up and move on your breaks.

  1. take short 1-2 minute stretch breaks every 30 minutes.
  2. after each hour of work, take a break or change tasks for at least 5-10 minutes.
  3. always try to get away from your computer during lunch breaks.

6.7 body

6.7.1 head

Your head should be centered over your shoulders, at about arms length from the computer monitor, with eyes looking straight ahead at the monitor or just below a horizontal gaze.

6.7.2 shoulders

Your shoulders should be comfortably held down and back.

6.7.3 elbows

Your elbows should be relaxed and held close to the side of the body, causing around a 90-degree angle between the arm and the forearm.

6.7.4 wrists

Your wrists should be relaxed, in a straight neutral position, without resting on a wrist pad or on the edge of the work surface.

6.7.5 desk

Adjust the height of the work surface so that the work surface allows:

  • your elbows to be bent at 90º,
  • forearms parallel with the floor,
  • wrist straight,
  • shoulders relaxed.

6.7.6 chair

Sitting in the chair, raise or lower the seat so that your feet rest comfortably on the floor. Your feet should be planted flat on the floor.

The chair should be slightly slanted forward ( with the front end of the seat, behind the knees, being very slightly lower than the back end of the seat ). Your knees should be slightly lower than your hips.

If you have a seat slider, adjust the seat pan depth so that a closed fist fits between your knee and the edge of the seat. Adjust your chair so the seat does not press into the back of your knees.

Sit as far back in the chair as possible, and adjust the backrest height or lumbar support so that it fits into the curve in your lower back. Your back should be held upright, while maintaining the curve of the lower back.

Adjust the backrest angle to achieve a torso-to-thigh angle of 93-113 degrees.

Remember to adjust your chair throughout the day to help relieve muscle tension in specific muscle groups.

6.7.7 footrest

Use a footrest if your feet do not rest comfortably on the floor.

6.7.8 keyboard and mouse

  1. key with gentle, quick keystrokes.
  2. relax your arms and hands when you are not typing or using the mouse.
  3. do not rest your arms and hands on edges, such as the edge of your desk.
  4. type with your hands and wrists floating above the keyboard, so that you can use your whole arm to reach for distant keys instead of streaching your fingers. Avoid resting your palms or wrists on any type of surface while typing. The palm rest, if provided, should only be used during breaks from typing.avoid resting your palms or wrists on any type of surface while typing.
  5. use shortcut keys whenever possible to limit mouse use.
  6. sit close to the keyboard and mouse so that your upper arms hang in a relaxed position.
  7. place your keyboard and mouse at the same height; these should be at about elbow level. Your upper arms should fall relaxed at your sides.
  8. when typing, center your keyboard in front of you with your mouse located close to it.
  9. keep your wrists straight while typing and while using a mouse. Avoid bending your wrists up, down, or to the sides. If your keyboard has legs, extend them if this helps you maintain a comfortable and straight wrist position.
  10. move the mouse from the elbow, rather than from the wrist down.
  11. use a light touch when clicking a mouse button. Rest your finger lightly on the mouse button.
  12. hold the mouse with a relaxed hand and do not grip the mouse tightly. Hold it gently and glide it over the surface.
  13. alternate mousing between left and right hands. Choose a mouse that fits your hand, and that can be used with either hand.
  14. use different input devices, such as your mouse and keyboard, to accomplish the same task. For example, to perform a scrolling task, you can use the wheel on the mouse and the arrow keys on the keyboard.

6.7.9 Monitor

The monitor should be positioned so that your natural gaze falls about one-third down the length of the screen. Position the top of the screen near eye level.

The distance should be about arm's length ( 45 to 60 cm ).

Center your monitor in front of you.

6.7.10 Neck

Your neck should be elongated, without straining forward or backward.

6.7.11 Fingers

Your fingers should be gently curved downward.

6.7.12 Eyes

  1. avoid eye fatigue by resting and refocusing your eyes periodically.
  2. look away from the monitor and focus on something in the distance.
  3. rest your eyes by covering them with your palms for 10-15 seconds.

The muscular effort required to focus on objects at close distances strains the eyes.

Accommodation and convergence are the two main functions, which govern the viewing of objects at closer distances. The shorter the viewing distance, the greater the muscular effort required for accommodation and convergence, and which, in turn, increases the risk for eye discomfort.

Accommodation is the automatic adjustment of the eye for focusing on near objects. The eyes achieve this by changing the convexity ( or shape ) of the lenses.

Convergence is the automatic inward ( toward the nose ) turn of the eyes when viewing close objects.

The eyes have a default accommodation distance ( rpa ) and a default resting point of vergence. In practical terms, at distances greater than the rpa and rpv, there is no need for either accommodation or convergence.

Numerical values of rpa ( around 75 cm ) and rpv ( around 80 cm ) are close to each other which makes setting the right viewing distance simple.

Es conveniente hacer breves descansos, de uno a dos minutos cada hora:

  • mirando lejos y cerca alternativamente, para movilizar los musculos del ojo, y
  • parpadeando para evitar la sequedad ocular.

To minimize eye strain, try the following:

  • avoid glare by placing your monitor away from light sources that produce glare, or use window blinds to control light levels.
  • adjust your monitor's brightness and constrast.
  • adjust onscreen font sizes to make viewing more comfortable for you.

6.8 Silla

Ajuste la altura del respaldo de la silla, para que haya contacto entre éste y la parte mas curvada de su espalda.

Si su silla tiene reposabrazos, deben ser de altura ajustable, para que al utilizarlos no eche los hombros hacia abajo o adelante.

El borde de la silla no debe presionar sobre las corvas.

A lo largo del dia, ajuste varias veces la postura del cuerpo y la posición de la silla. El cambio de posición reduce la fatiga muscular.

7 oral hygiene

La saliva reduce los niveles de ácido en los dientes.

Twice daily toothbrushing will help to control build-up of plaque. Brush your teeth for two minutes. Lavarnos siempre los dientes antes de ir a la cama.

Ideally, brush your teeth at least an hour after eating. The reason for this is to help prevent tooth erosion. Many foods contain acids. After your teeth are exposed to acid, the enamel is a little softened. But, the action of calcium and other mineral salts in the saliva can help to counteract and reverse this softening. Therefore, do not brush teeth immediately after eating when the enamel tends to be at its softest. Tras las comidas lo mejor es enjuagarnos la boca con agua.

La manera correcta de cepillarse los dientes es desde las encias hacia fuera, pues de esta forma no corremos el riesgo de llevar la porquería debajo de la encía, lo que genera sarro y gingivitis. Además, no debemos olvidarnos de limpiar los dientes por delante y por detrás, así como los espacios entre estos y la lengua.

Replace your toothbrush every three to four months, or sooner if the bristles are frayed.

Cleaning the tongue as part of daily oral hygiene is essential, since it removes the white/yellow bad-breath-generating coating of bacteria, decaying food particles, fungi and dead cells from the dorsal area of the tongue.

Dental flossing between the teeth is recommended at least once per day, preferably before brushing so fluoride toothpaste has better access between teeth to help remineralise teeth.

Removing floss from between teeth requires using the same back-and-forth motion as flossing, but gently bringing the floss up and out of gaps between teeth.

8 cervicales

Al estar sentado deberemos mantener la espalda recta apoyada completamente en el respaldo, es conveniente NO usar asientos excesivamente blandos y ayudarse de apoyos lumbares y de reposapiés.

Cuando hablamos por teléfono, debemos sujetar el dispositivo con la mano y no con el hombro

Cualquier posición mantenida durante largo tiempo resulta perjudicial para los músculos y las vértebras del cuello; por ello, debemos evitar permanecer en la misma pose de manera prolongada e impedir que se acumule tensión en dichas zonas.

9 psoriasis

No arrascarse las lesiones de psoriasis.

Aloe vera is very effective in relieving the effects of psoriasis naturally, you can use creams and shampoos with aloe vera.

9.1 hidratación

Largos baños o duchas roba aceites de la piel. Por ello, los baños o duchas deben ser de corta duración con agua tibia. El jabón de glicerina ayuda a la piel para que absorba la humedad del aire. Después de bañarte, secate con una toalla y aplica rápidamente una loción hidratante mientras la piel todavia está húmeda. Esto bloqueara la humedad y evitará que tu piel se reseque.

Mantener las lesiones de psoriasis hidratadas poniendolas crema por lo menos una vez al dia.

Mantener el cuerpo hidratado es uno de los remedios naturales para la psorasis. Tener un montón de liquido en el cuerpo ayuda a prevenir la piel seca.

Cubra las áreas afectadas durante la noche. Aplicar una crema hidratante sobre la piel y envolver con una envoltura de plástico durante la noche. Por la mañana, retire la cubierta y lave las lesiones.

9.2 baños de sol

Exponga la piel a pequeñas cantidades de luz solar. Una cantidad controlada de la luz solar puede mejorar significativamente las lesiones, pero el exceso de sol puede desencadenar o empeorar los brotes y aumentar el riesgo de cáncer de piel.

Es útil exponer las lesiones de psoriasis al sol sin crema solar durante unos minutos, que irán aumentando progresivamente hasta un máximo de 10 o 15, para luego pasar a protegerlas con la crema solar como ya se ha hecho desde el inicio con el resto de la piel sana. No tome el sol en las horas de mayor incidencia, es decir, entre las 12:00 y las 17:00.

In order to help clear psoriasis, sun exposure needs to be spread over time. It is important to increase exposure to the sun gradually, to allow your skin to adapt to the sun without burning.

10 sol y salud

Hay una relación directa entre mayor exposición al sol y menor riesgo de casi todos los tipos de cáncer: próstata, pulmón, pecho, colorrectal, leucemia, páncreas, vejiga, linfoma, etc. Todos más peligrosos que el melanoma.

La tasa de mortalidad del grupo con menor exposición al sol era el doble que la del grupo con mayor

Sunscreen use can help prevent melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma, two types of skin cancer.

The American Academy of Dermatology recommends everyone use sunscreen that offers the following:

  • broad-spectrum protection (protects against UVA and UVB rays)
  • sun Protection Factor (SPF) 30 or higher
  • water resistance.

Sunscreen alone cannot fully protect you. In addition to wearing sunscreen, dermatologists recommend taking the following steps to protect your skin and find skin cancer early:

  • seek shade when appropriate, remembering that the sun’s rays are strongest between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m.
  • wear protective clothing, such as a long-sleeved shirt, pants, a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses, when possible. Use extra caution near water, snow and sand as they reflect the damaging rays of the sun, which can increase your chance of sunburn.
  • get vitamin D safely through a healthy diet that may include vitamin supplements. Don’t seek the sun.
  • check your birthday suit on your birthday. If you notice anything changing, itching or bleeding on your skin, see a board-certified dermatologist. Skin cancer is very treatable when caught early.

Snow, sand and water increase the need for sunscreen because they reflect the sun’s rays.

Apply sunscreen to dry skin 15 minutes BEFORE going outdoors.

Skin cancer also can form on the lips. To protect your lips, apply a lip balm or lipstick that contains sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher.

Reapply sunscreen approximately every two hours, or after swimming or sweating, according to the directions on the bottle.

Sunlight consists of two types of harmful rays that reach the earth ( UVA rays and UVB rays ). Overexposure to either can lead to skin cancer. In addition to causing skin cancer, here’s what each of these rays do:

  • UVA rays can prematurely age your skin, causing wrinkles and age spots, and can pass through window glass.
  • UVB rays are the primary cause of sunburn and are blocked by window glass.

Dermatologists recommend using a sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, which blocks 97 percent of the sun’s rays. Higher-number SPFs block slightly more of the sun’s rays, but no sunscreen can block 100 percent of the sun’s rays. Currently, there is not any scientific evidence that indicates using a sunscreen with an SPF higher than 50 can protect you better than a sunscreen with an SPF of 50.

11 testosterone

11.1 testosterone, exercise, stress and rest

Testosterone is one of the body's major growth hormones.

Men who lift weights have higher resting levels of testosterone than men who don't push iron.

Testosterone levels peak around 30 minutes post-exercise. They then return to baseline by the one-hour mark.

Moderate- and high-intensity strength exercise do not differ with respect to prolonged (1-33 h) hormonal responses.

When it comes to resistance training, higher-volume training programs ( think multiple sets at a moderate to high loads: from 6RM to 12RM ) tend to elicit the greatest hormonal response.

Train large muscle groups. Train compound movements, big multi-joint movements that utilise a wide range of muscle groups: squats, deadlift and bench press. Three exercises per workout. Free weight exercise versus cables and machines, etc. produces a higher testosterone response. This is mainly due to the fact that more of your body is involved in some way during a compound exercise. This greater strain on your body as a whole produces a larger hormonal response.

Rest one minute between sets of an exercise. Rest five minutes between exercises. At the end of the sixth set you'll be very fatigued, so rest five full minutes to give your central nervous system some relief before you move to the next exercise. Utilize the rest times between sets for stretching.

The sweet spot seems to be a load that's as close to a 9RM as possible. From there, do your damnedest to get at least 6 reps per set. Once you drop to 5 reps, decrease the load and continue until all six sets are finished. If your fifth rep was brutal, don't try for a sixth because it'll take too much out of you. The intensity must be high but manageable.

Research has shown that endurance cyclists and runners, but not swimmers, have significantly lower testosterone levels than sedentary controls.

Other ways to spike testosterone:

  1. running, especially in short and intense bursts of sprints, is the most effective and body intensive work out for increasing your testosterone levels through exercise!

    Sprint in short, intense bursts of running ( such as say, six to eight seconds of extremely fast running, followed by a mellow jog for a few minutes, and then another eight seconds of sprinting. Studies have also shown that small sprints with longer rest periods work more favorably than long sprints. 5-10 short sprints.

    Get full recovery after each sprint.

    Hill sprints are actually a safer choice than the standard sprints on the track.

  2. hiit ( high intensity interval training ).
  3. the actual evidence is suggesting that cardio before weights is more 'anabolic'.

When cortisol levels rise, testosterone levels tend to decrease. To lower cortisol levels:

  • Do not train for too long and finish workouts with slow relaxing movements like leisure walking.
  • meditate within an hour after each workout.
  • ongoing psychological stress has been found to lower testosterone levels. Reduce stress. Meditating can help you de-stress. Cardio exercise is also a great form of stress-relief.
  • avoid overtraining ( over-exercising is a type of stress )
  • get sufficient rest between exercise sessions.
  • sleep deep and sleep a lot. Most of your testosterone will be produced during the time you are sleeping, especially in the rem-stages of sleep.

11.2 testosterone, food and weight

  1. eating too much sugar has been found to reduce testosterone levels, as has obesity in general. Avoid sugar and lose excess body weight. Be lean.
  2. chia seeds directly boost testosterone levels in the body due to their essential fatty acid profile. They’re a great source of omega-3 fats, along with other anti-inflammatory fats. Chia seeds are also a great source of potassium, zinc, iron, magnesium.
  3. consume a lot of dietary fat: walnuts, extra virgen olive oil, almonds, dark chocolate, cheese, cod liver oil, wild fish. Almost any kinds of nuts will naturally increase testosterone levels.
  4. consume garlic, onions, citrus fruits, red grapes, granadas, etc.
  5. eggs contain: calcium, vitamin D, saturated fat, and cholesterol, all of which have been suggested to increase levels of testosterone.
  6. beans ontain fiber, protein, zinc, and vitamin D
  7. vitamin d increases testosterone levels, boosts libido and helps maintain a healthy sperm count. The sun rays will start the natural process of creating vitamin-d in your skin.
  8. fuentes de zinc: cerdo, mejillones, pollo, lacteos, legumes, oatmeal, nuts, seeds.
  9. fuentes de magnesio: legumbres, aguacate, platanos, pasas, semillas, salmon, atun, caballa, verduras de color verde oscuro.
  10. dietary sources of vitamin k2: fish eggs, eggs, cheese
  11. dietary foods that lower testosterone:
    • flaxseed products
    • regaliz
    • menta y hierbabuena
    • ( maybe ) soy products

12 hipertrofia

La hipertrofia tiene más que ver con el volumen total ( series x repeticiones x peso ) y el esfuerzo realizado que con la combinación exacta de series y repeticiones.

Se puede ganar el mismo músculo con un amplio rango de repeticiones.

Progresar es la única manera de hipertrofiar. Si aumentas los pesos gradualmente los músculos crecerán. Progresar también puede ser realizar alguna repetición extra con el mismo peso.

13 agarre y antebrazos

Los antebrazos es una de las partes de tu cuerpo mas visibles. Con remangarte la camisa ya puedes lucir los antebrazos. Un agarre fuerte = antebrazos anchos.

Nuestros músculos forman una cadena, y la fuerza total que podemos producir está limitada por el eslabón más débil de dicha cadena. En ejercicios como el peso muerto, este eslabón débil suele ser la fuerza de agarre. Puede llegar un momento en el que nuestras piernas puedan tirar más fuerte, pero nuestros antebrazos no.

Precisamente por esta razón suele decirse que "somos tan fuertes como lo seamos en nuestro punto más débil".

Los ejercicios convencionales y sus variantes son los que más nos van a ayudar a generar unos antebrazos fuertes. Ejercicios como el peso muerto, sentadilla, etc.

Otros ejercicios interesantes:

  • el paseo del granjero
  • agarrate a la barra como si fueses a hacer dominadas agrega y aguanta lo mas posible colgado de la barra.

Desequilibrios entre los músculos flexores y extensores de los dedos pueden ocasionar problemas como el síndrome del tunel carpiano. Los músculos extensores son los que abren la mano.

Una de las mejores opciones para trabajar los extensores de los dedos ( de manera isométrica ) es la flexión sobre dedos.

13.1 Farmers walks

Coge dos kettlebells, o mancuernas, y camina tan lejos que quieras mientras las sostienes entre tus manos. Toma un descanso y hazlo de nuevo. Walk with your chest out, standing tall with arms at your sides. You can walk in a figure-eight pattern if you don’t have the space. At the end of the distance, stop and continue to hold the weights for as long as possible.

En adición a desarrollar los antebrazos de Popeye, los farmers walks desarrollan la fuerza de todo el cuerpo.

Este ejercicio no sólo exige lo máximo de tus manos y antebrazos, trabaja también tu espalda alta y requiere estabilización del torso.

14 jumping rope

Select the right sized rope to make proper form easier to execute. Stand in the center of the rope with one foot and pull the handles up alongside your body. If the rope is the appropriate size for you, the handles should reach the top of your shoulders.

La longitud ideal se consigue pisando la cuerda con un pie y llevando los mangos en posición horizontal a la altura de los pezones. Los principiantes pueden empezar con una altura de 2 a 5cm sobre los pezones.

Utiliza calzado sin acolchamiento.

Your heels should NEVER touch the ground when skipping.


  • la cabeza y el torso rectos,
  • la mirada al frente,
  • los codos cerca del cuerpo,
  • las rodillas ligeramente dobladas, y
  • el abdomen contraido para proteger la espalda y las rodillas

Stand up straight. Bend your knees slightly. Engage your abs and tuck your butt IN!. Mantén flexionadas las piernas y estira las piernas al saltar.

  1. jump just high enough to clear the rope by pushing from the balls of your feet while slightly bending your knees and flexing your ankles.
  2. land softly/lightly on the balls of your feet,
  3. utiliza la parte delantera de los pies ( metatarso ) para impulsarte y para aterrizar.

Gira sólo las muñecas y no los brazos. Los hombros deben permanecer relajados.

Evita dar dos saltos en un solo giro de la cuerda.

You should be landing softly on the balls of your feet. Your elbows should be near your side and the rope should be turned by your wrists, not your arms.

A suspended wood floor is the best for your joints,

Jumping rope can also avoid the knee damage which may occur during running, since the impact of each jump or step is absorbed by both legs.

Make small circles with wrists.

One way to determine the ideal length is to step one foot in the middle of the rope. The handles should reach up to approximately armpit height.

When first jumping rope, it is important that you become proficient with the rope before using it as a conditioning tool.

View these sessions as skill-based workouts. You are learning a new skill ( rope skipping ). The body is much more capable of learning when it is fresh, not fatigued.

You can also purchase an interlocking foam mat that lies on top of your floor surface. The interlocking foam forms a temporary jumping surface. Try to avoid jumping rope on unforgiving surfaces such as concrete flooring.

The ideal surface for jumping rope is a suspended wood floor. Lo ideal es entrenar con las combas en suelo de base de goma sobre hormigón.

15 activacion del abdomen

La elongación axial consiste en alargar nuestra columna a lo largo de su eje vertical. Al alargar nuestra columna debemos respetar las curvaturas de la misma. De esta forma, nuestra espalda queda en una posición neutra, que es la posición óptima para realizar todo tipo de movimientos con nuestra columna.

Lo más importante es que con la elongación axial liberamos la tensión intervertebral, es decir, creamos espacio entre las vértebras de nuestra columna, facilitando de ese modo los movimientos de flexión, extensión y rotación por segmentos en la misma.

Además, automáticamente se activan todos los músculos del core, incluyendo la musculatura profunda. Recordamos que el core no se limita a recto abdominal y lumbares, sino que también incluye, entre otros, el transverso del abdomen, los erectores espinales, los multífidos, los dorsales y la musculatura del suelo pélvico.

  1. si estamos de pie: debemos imaginar que empujamos el suelo con nuestros pies, mientras que nuestra cabeza sube hacia el techo, como si fuéramos marionetas y un hilo tirara de la cabeza desde arriba.
  2. si estamos tumbados: intentamos separar la coronilla del hueso del sacro ( la parte más baja de la columna vertebral ) y crear espacio entre ambos. Si tenemos las piernas estiradas, éstas intentan llegar hacia la pared que tenemos enfrente.
  3. si estamos en cuadrupedia: proyectamos la coronilla hacia la pared que tenemos delante, y los isquiones ( los huesos del trasero ) hacia la pared que tenemos detrás.

16 strongLifts 5x5

Wait at least one day between two workouts. This gives your body time to recover, get stronger and build muscle to lift heavier next workout.

Less is more when you start lifting.

The strongLifts 5×5 program consists of two workouts:

  1. workout A: squat 5×5 ➜ bench press 5×5 ➜ barbell row 5×5
  2. workout B: squat 5×5 ➜ overhead press 5×5 ➜ deadlift 1×5

5×5 means you do five sets of five reps with the same weight. Squat five times, rack the weight, and rest. Then squat for five reps again. Repeat until you’ve done five sets of five ( 5×5 ). Then move to the next exercise. Don’t squat one set, bench one set, row one set and then go back to squats. On deadlifts only do one set of five reps ( 1×5 ).

Always start with squats. They’re the hardest exercise. Bench or overhead press next. This gives your legs and lower back rest before you need them again on barbell rows and deadlifts.

Use the same range of motion on every rep, set and workout regardless of the weight. Keep it constant.

Increase the weight every workout on each exercise where you completed five reps on each set. Add weight slowly. Maximum 1kg per workout. 1/2kg is even better.

This progressive increase in weight triggers your body to get stronger and build muscle.

Alternate workout A and B every time you train.

16.1 lifting tempo

Control the bar at all times so you can maintain proper form.

Don’t move the bar slowly because that wastes strength. You can lift heavier when you lift fast. The bar should go down faster than it moves up. And the bar path should be as close to vertical as possible.

Take your time between reps. Rest a second before doing the next rep so you can get tight and take a big breath. This will also give you some recovery. Don’t rush your reps or you’ll lose focus and lift with bad form. But don’t wait too long either or the next rep will be harder.

16.2 warmup

Skip the cardio and do lighter warmup sets ( it will save you time ).

The proper way to warmup is to start with two sets of five with the empty bar. Add 10-20kg and do your next warmup set for 2-3 reps. Keep adding weight until you reach your work weight. Don’t rest between warmup sets to keep your workouts short. Only rest after the last one. This way you have full atp available before doing that heavy set. On your other warmup sets, just add weight and go.

Deadlift and barbell rows need less warmup because they’re the last exercise. You’re already warmed up by that point. Plus the starting weight can’t be the empty bar because the weight has to start from the floor.

If 1×5 deadlifts doesn’t feel enough, warmup by doing sets of 5 reps instead of 2-3 reps. This gives you more reps to practice proper form. It also increases how much deadlifts you do. But it avoids the stress of doing 5×5 deadlifts with heavy weight on each set.

16.3 rest time

  1. 1'30" if you easily completed five reps on your last set.
  2. 3' if you struggled to get five reps on your last set.

Rest as long as you need between sets to get five reps on your next set. Don’t start a set still breathing hard.

Stay focused between sets. Review your form if you just taped yourself. Maybe visualize yourself doing your next set with perfect form.

You don’t need to rest between exercises or light warmup sets just set the equipment, add weight and go.

16.4 breaks

If you train three times a week, 45 weeks a year, then a week off here and there won’t hurt. This is the 80/20 rule aka Pareto’s principle.

The Pareto principle ( also known as the 80/20 rule ) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.

You don’t lose much strength if you eat properly, sleep well and stay active during your break. You can actually come back stronger from the extra rest You should be able to continue where you left off. But don’t hesitate to lower the weight by maybe 10% to ease back into things.

It’s crucial that you get back to the gym as soon as possible after your break.

16.5 plateaus

Switch from 5×5 to 3×5 ( three sets of five reps ) as soon as you struggle to get your reps. 5×5 ➜ 3×5 does not apply to deadlifts.

Only switch on the exercise you struggled with.

You’ll make progress for several workouts until you start struggling to get your reps again. You can then switch to madcow 5×5.

16.5.1 madcow 5×5

No more workout to workout increases. Instead you’ll increase the weight on a weekly basis. Add the minimum weight possible ( mwp ) every week ( 1kg or 0.5kg ):

100% + mwp ➜ 100%


Squat, bench press and barbell row: 5x5 ramping weight to top set of 5 ( which should equal the previous Friday's heavy triple ).

5x50% ➜ 5x62.5% ➜ 5x75% ➜ 5x87.5% ➜ 5x100%


  1. Squats: 5x50% ➜ 5x62.5% ➜ 5x75% ➜ 5x75%
  2. Overhead press and deadlifts:

    5x50% ➜ 5x62.5% ➜ 5x75% ➜ 5x87.5% ➜ 5x100%


Squat, bench press and barbell row.

5x52.5% ➜ 5x65% ➜ 5x77.5% ➜ 5x90% ➜ 3x ( 100% + mwp ) ➜ 8x77.5%

You’ll make progress for several workouts until you start struggling to get your reps again. At that point cut the weight 10% and start the progression over again.

16.6 proteins

For best results, you need at least 2.2g of protein per kilogram bodyweight.

16.7 equipment

You need a power rack to squat heavy safely. Power racks have four vertical poles with uprights and horizontal safety pins. You use the uprights to put the bar on and off your back. You use the adjustable safety pins to catch the bar if you fail to squat the weight back up.

Squat with an olympic barbell. It’s the long and heavy one: 220cm′ and 20kg. The main part is 28mm thick, the outer part 50mm. The bar has knurling for your hands and center knurling for your upper-back. Olympic power bars are stiff and don’t bounce around. They can easily handle 450kg of weight.

The sleeves of olympic barbells rotate. The outside part where you put the plates on can rotate independently from the bar. Oil and maintain it will so the sleeves rotate properly.

The best shoes for lifting have hard soles. They can’t compress under the weight.

Thin soles put you closer to the floor. They shorten the distance the bar travels when you deadlift, helping you pull heavier. Flat soles help you involve your posterior chain more on squats and deadlifts.

Belts help you lift heavier weights by adding lower back support. They give your abs a surface to push against. Your abs contract harder which increases pressure in your abdomen. This improves power transfer to the bar and increases how much you can lift.

You don’t need a belt the first weeks of strongLifts 5×5. A belt is most useful on the squat, deadlift and overhead press. Your belt should be the same width ( 10cm ) in the front and back. Single prong belts are easier to put on/off than two prongs.

Always warmup without belt. Put it on for your last warmup sets and heavy sets only. And remove your belt between sets.

Chalk increases grip strength by absorbing sweat. Chalk also reduces calluses from deadlifting. Wash your hands when done, moisturize if needed.

17 squats

Squats are a compound movement, which means it’s a movement that uses more than one joint ( your hip and knee joints ) to complete.

Squats work your whole body. Your legs bend and straighten to move the weight. Your abs and lower back muscles stabilize your trunk while your legs move. Your upper-back, shoulders and arms balance the bar on your back. Many muscles work at the same time, not just your legs.

The movement begins from a standing position. The movement is initiated by moving the hips back and bending the knees and hips to lower the torso and accompanying weight. Break parallel by squatting down until your hips are below your knees and then return to the upright position.

Squat with your heels directly under your shoulders.

Put your heels shoulder-width apart, turn your feet out 30° and push your knees out to the sides.

Move your hips back and down while pushing your knees out. Keep your knees inline with your feet. Your knees should come forward the first half of the way down. But they should then stay there while your hips keep moving down. Your knees should end inline with your feet and almost directly above your toes.

The middle of your foot is your balance point. The bar is balanced when it moves in a vertical line over your mid-foot during your squat ( way down and way up ).

Keep your neck inline with your torso. Straight line head to hips. This keeps your neck safe and your chest up.

Stand tall with your hips and knees locked before you rack the weight.

Rounding your lower back during heavy squats compresses your spinal discs. So does excess arching of your lower back by curving your spine in the opposite direction. The safe way to squat is with your spine neutral ( lower back ). Maintain a natural arch in your lower back like when you stand.

In a weight bearing squat, the heels should always maintain contact with the floor throughout the movement. Weight shifting forward on to the toes, and off the heels creates unnecessary stress on the knee joint. This added stress may lead to inflammation or other overuse injuries.

17.1 proper squat depth

Squat down until your hips are below your knees. Thighs parallel to the floor isn’t low enough. You must break parallel so the top of your knees is higher than your hip crease.

When do you stop descending?

As low as your body will let you go.

Going until you bottom out not only do you get the benefits of increased range of motion, but most people find they can actually lift more weight.

Most people’s sticking point in the squat ( the point where the bar slows down dramatically, and the point where most people miss a squat that’s too heavy ) is a little bit above parallel. If you’re squatting at least to parallel, the hardest point of the lift won’t be your bottom position. It will be midway up, so you aren’t making the lift any harder by sinking a couple of inches deeper.

When you squat until your hips stop you or until your hamstrings bounce off your calves, you take advantage of the extress reflex bounce out the hole, which will help you in reversing the load so you’ll have more momentum built up when you reach the sticking point. Most people find that if they bottom out two inches below parallel, it’s a lot easier to complete the lift if they go two inches below parallel rather than cutting the squat right at parallel.

17.2 faling reps safely

The horizontal safety pins must be lower than the bottom position of your squat. Set the pins just below where you break parallel so you don’t hit them on good reps.

When you fail to squat the weight up, lower the bar to the pins by squatting straight down. Keep the bar over your mid-foot and squat back down. Go below parallel until the bar lands on the safety pins. Expect a hard stretch of your hip muscles. Practice failing with a light weight a few times on purpose. This way you know what to expect when you really need to fail.

17.3 lower back

Maintain the natural curve in your lower back when you squat. Don’t let your lower back round or overarch it. Both squeeze your spinal discs which can cause back pain or injuries like herniated discs. Keep your chest up, push your knees out and don’t go deeper than parallel.

Squatting with proper form will strengthen your lower back. Gravity pulls the bar down when you Squat. The muscles around your spine prevent it from bending under the weight. Your lower back muscles ( erector spinae ) and ab muscles ( rectus abdominis ) get stronger each time you manage to squat 2.5kg more with a neutral back. Strengthening the muscles around your spine protects it against injury in daily life.

17.4 grip

Grip the bar like you do for the bench press. Put your pinky inside the rings marks of your bar. Then squeeze your shoulder-blades to support the bar with your upper-back muscles.

Grip the bar as narrow as you comfortably can. A narrower hand position will help you keep your upper back a little tighter and more stable. When you bring your hands in, your scapulae naturally have to retract harder ( so your middle and lower traps will be tighter, along with your rhomboids ), and your shoulders will naturally have to adduct ( tensing your lats a bit ).

We want the grip to be wide enough to engage the lats. We want the hands to be as close as possible, but where we can still bend the bar over the back.

A narrower hand position creates far more tension. This is because you can pull your elbows in towards your hips and push them further forward, which drives the chest upwards and maintains good form.

You must support the bar with your stronger upper-back muscles. Don’t hold the bar with your hands.

17.5 bar position

Bar between your traps and rear shoulders ( low bar ), at the top of your shoulder-blades ( scapular spine ). Squeeze your shoulder-blades together to create muscle support for the bar and so it can’t dig in your spine.

If your shoulders don’t like the low bar position, stick with high bar:

the bar on your traps, at the bottom of you neck. Squeeze your traps so the bar doesn’t dig into your spine.

If you squat with the bar resting more on one side of your back, you’ll load your spine, hips and knees unevenly. This can cause pain and injury. Squat with the bar centered. Center it before you unrack the weight, not after. Ask someone to check if the bar is centered or videotape yourself from the back. After a couple of times you’ll remember what centered feels like and won’t need any feedback.

To create even more tension in the back squat, try to bend the bar across your shoulders, like you’re trying to fold it in half.

17.6 elbows

Two scenarios. One, your elbows pop up and flare out, which leads to rounded shoulders and makes it impossible to flex your lats and create a tight upper back, a sturdy shelf for the bar to sit on. That's an old school technique that goes along with looking up. Two, keep your elbows and arms at the same angle as your torso. If you're bent over at 30-40 degrees on a squat, your elbows should follow in the same plane as your torso.

Do what's comfortable. Put your elbows where you like. Try different positions. Just make sure the bar is stable and pinned to your back.

The majority of powerlifters squat lowbar with elbows neutral in line with the body or down under the bar, not flared back. They may flare back a bit at the top when locked out but bring them down on the descent/ascent.

The standard powerlifting low bar squat advice is to flair your elbows to create a shelf at the top, then bring them down to help activate your lats/ keep your chest up as you descend.

The narrower grip traps the bar without the need for raised elbows.

Lift your elbows slightly behind your torso at the top so your forearms are incline.

Keep your forearms incline. Your elbows should start behind your torso at the top, and stay there while your torso moves from vertical to incline.

Flare = to spread or cause to spread outwards from a narrow to a wider shape.

17.7 upper-back

Tighten your upper-back to create a muscle shelf for the bar to rest on. Squeeze your shoulder-blades together when you setup for the squat. Squeeze them before you unrack the weight, not after.

Keep your upper-back arched when you squat. Raise your chest, squeeze your shoulder-blades together and squeeze the bar. Take a big breath between reps to hold it.

17.8 chest

Raise your chest before you unrack the bar. Raise it again at the top of every rep before you squat down. Keep your chest up by taking a big breath and holding it before you squat down. Don’t breathe on the way down or you’ll lose tension and your chest will collapse. Hold your breath until you’re back up.

17.9 head

Head inline with torso. If you Squat in front of a wall as I do, look at the bottom of the wall. Don’t look sideways when you rack/unrack the weight or you’ll twist your neck. Don’t look at your feet or your upper-back will round. Keep your neck inline with your torso. Straight line head to hips. This keeps your neck safe and your chest up.

Don’t look up. Looking up during heavy squats squeezes the spinal discs in your neck. This can cause neck pain and injury. The safest position for your neck is always to keep it neutral like when you stand.

17.10 unracking

You should walk the bar out of the rack as efficiently as possible so that you waste minimal energy before you actually get down to the business of squatting. This means taking as few steps as possible. You want to get far enough away from the rack that you won’t accidentally hit the hooks when you’re squatting, but you don’t want to expend more energy than necessary, or take huge steps that could throw you off balance.

Unrack the bar by driving your shoulders up into the bar aggressively. A lot of people find that, especially with very heavy loads, unracking the bar aggressively makes the weight feel less intimidating than gingerly unracking the bar. Start with your hips a bit behind the bar, take a deep breath, tense your back, and drive the bar up off the hooks by driving your hips under the bar and pushing the floor away from you.

Once you unrack the bar, take a little step back with one foot, take a little step back with your second foot, and then you widen out your stance with your third step. Make a small adjustment in the direction your toes are pointed if needed.

Setup. Face the bar. It should be at mid-chest level in your uprights. Grab the bar, dip under it and put it on your back. Move your feet under the bar, raise your chest and arch your upper-back. Don’t unrack with a loose upper-back or the bar will press on your spine. Get tight before you unrack the bar. And keep your lower back and neck neutral.

Your feet should be under the bar with your hips and knees bent. Now unrack the bar by squatting straight up. Squat straight up and keep your heels on the floor.

Walk back, lock your hips and knees, and you’re ready to squat.

17.11 way down

Squat down by bending your knees and hips at the same time. Your knees will move the first half of your squat but then stay where they are. Your hips then finish the movement by breaking parallel while your lower back stays neutral.

The bar must move in a vertical line over your mid-foot when you squat.

Lock the bar on your upper-back so it can’t move and cause bad balance. Keep your chest up, pinch your shoulder-blades together and squeeze the bar hard.

The faster you squat down, the stronger you’ll be on the way up. But go down too fast and you’ll struggle to squat with proper form. Squat down as fast as you can while maintaining proper form. Don’t be slow but do control the bar on the way down.

A faster descent can help you get a little more “bounce” out of the bottom of the squat via the stretch reflex ( when your muscles stretch quickly, they naturally contract with a bit more force for a moment when you reverse the movement ), but a little extra pop isn’t very helpful if you’re loose and out of control when you hit the hole.

17.12 bracing

Bracing your torso is crucial for a big squat. It doesn’t matter how strong your legs and hips are if that force can’t make it to the bar through a rigid torso.

Brace like you’re going to take a punch to the stomach if you’re squatting without a belt, and push your stomach and obliques against your belt if you’re squatting belted.

Intra-abdominal ( iap ) pressure is a key factor. Here is what we know about iap:

  1. iap is higher with a belt than without one.
  2. iap is higher when you take a diaphragmatic breath. When you inhale, your stomach should inflate to the front and sides ( which has been described as “360 degree expansion”), rather than your chest and shoulders rising.
  3. iap is higher when you hold your breath and use the valsalva maneuver ( like you’re trying to forcefully exhale while closing off your throat so no air gets out ).

17.13 bottom

Break parallel. The top of your knees must be higher than your hip crease at the bottom of each squat rep.

Use a full range of motion. Squat down until your hip crease is lower than the top of your knees. Break parallel, then come back up.

If you can’t break parallel, the weight is too heavy.

Rebound. Squat down, break parallel, then quickly reverse the movement by squatting back up. The weight will be easier to squat because you’ll use the stretch eflex. Your leg muscles will contract harder because the way down stretched them. The harder your muscles contract, the stronger you are on the way up. The key is to maintain proper form at the bottom by keeping your knees out, hips back and lower back neutral.

You lose the stretch reflex if you pause at the bottom of your squat. This makes the weight harder to lift. You’ll squat more weight if you rebound off your stretched leg muscles at the bottom.

17.14 way up

Squat up by moving your hips straight to the ceiling while pushing your knees out. If you do it right, the bar will move in a vertical line over your mid-foot while you squat up.

Maintain your back angle. Move your hips and chest up at the same time. Maintain your back angle when you squat out of the bottom. It should be constant until you’re about half way up. Keep your chest up and upper-back tight while your hips move up.

You’re squatting up correctly if the bar moves in a vertical line over the middle of your feet. The weight is always easier to squat and safer for your joints if the bar moves over your mid-foot. Think of squatting the bar straight up.

17.15 between reps

Finish every quat rep by locking your knees and hips. Let your skeleton hold the weight by locking your knees. This works your quads through a full range of motion and makes the bar easier to hold. And it’s safe if you don’t bend your knees backwards and past their normal range of motion. Lock your knees gently at the top.

Stand tall and lock your hips so you have a straight line from your shoulders to your ankles. You can squeeze your glutes, but don’t let your lower back round. Keep it neutral at the top.

When you’re ready to squat your next rep, get tight. Raise your chest, arch your upper-back and pinch your shoulder-blades. Squeeze the bar so it can’t move while you squat. Then take a big breath, hold it and squat down. Take your time to get tight before you squat down. You’ll have better form and more strength. But don’t wait hours at the top. It shouldn’t take you more than a couple of seconds to get tight.

17.16 racking

Stand tall with your hips and knees locked before you rack the weight.

Rack the bar by walking forward until it hits the vertical parts of your power rack. Then bend your legs and the bar will land in the uprights. Don’t turn year head to check the uprights or you can tweak your neck. Don’t try to put the bar in the uprights either, you can miss them. Walk the bar against your power rack instead. When the bar touches it, it’s over your uprights. Just bend your legs to rack the weight.

17.17 breathing

Inhale at the top. Hold at the bottom. Exhale at the top.

You can slowly exhale on the way up against your closed glottis if the weight moves up slowly and the pressure is high. Once you’re at the top, take as many breaths as you want before going back down. Once you’re ready for your next set, raise your chest and arch your upper-back. Then take a big breath, hold it and Squat back down.

17.18 toddler squat

The toddler squat is the best stretch for the squat. You do it by resting in the bottom squat position for about a minute.

Toddler quats are effective because they stretch all the muscles you squat with. They stretch them at the same time, using just one exercise and the way you use them for squats.

To do the Toddler squat, squat down without using weight. Put your heels shoulder-width apart and toes 30° out. Keep your knees out, chest up and head neutral. Rest below parallel for a minute ( or less if that’s too long) . Then squat up, rest and repeat. Do 5-10 mins daily and try to hold longer each time. Keep your heels on the floor.

Everyone should be able to do the Toddler squat for 10 minutes.

Don’t drop into the bottom position, control it. Don’t bounce off your knees to squat lower. Keep your heels on the floor and your knees inline with your feet.

Once you’ve increased your flexibility with the Toddler squat, you can easily maintain it by squatting several times a week.

Shoulders dislocations are the best upper-body stretch for the squat. You do it by lifting a broomstick from your thighs over your head and behind your back. This stretches your chest, shoulders and upper-back. It makes the bar easier to hold across your back for the squat.

Squeeze your shoulder-blades before you unrack the bar.

17.19 squats

Because of the utilization of a large amount of muscle groups, they cause your body to increase our anabolic hormone production ( in turn, helping us lose fat and gain muscle ).

Stand with your feet slightly wider than your hips. Your toes should be pointed slightly outward ( about 5 to 20 degrees outward ).

Keep your spine in a neutral position. This means don’t round your back, but also don’t hyper extend and over accentuate the natural arch of your back.

Look straight ahead and pick a spot on the wall in front of you. You’ll want to look at this spot the entire time you squat,

Your weight should be on the heels and the balls of your feet.

Keep your entire body tight the entire time.

Now, breathe in, break at your hip and push your butt back.

Keep sending your hips backwards as your knees begin to bend. It’s important that you start with your hips back, and not by bending your knees.

Keep your back straight, with your neutral spine, and your chest and shoulders up. Keep looking straight ahead at that spot on the wall.

As you squat down, focus on keeping your knees in line with your feet. Many new lifters need to focus on pushing their knees out so they track with their feet. So, watch you knees! When they start to come inside the toes, push them out (but not wider than your feet). Think about it like this: if you were to attach a laser to the end of each of your knees, the laser would track between your second and fourth toes.

Squat down until your hip joint is lower than your knees. We are looking at your hip joint here, not your thighs. Depending on the size of your thighs, your squat may appear to be less deep than it truly is.

Once at the bottom, it’s time to stand back up!

Keeping everything tight, breathe out and drive through your heels ( keep the balls of your feet on the ground as well ).

Drive your knees out the same way you did on the way down, and squeeze your butt at the top to make sure you’re using your glutes.

Remember: keep your body and core tight the entire time. This is important now, but will be especially important once we start adding weight to the equation.

The squat is a hips movement. The knees just go along for the ride; if you squat down, your knees have to bend, but they don't have to take the majority of the stress. The hips are much better protected joints than the knees. The correct squat drives the hips back and the knees out to the side a little during the descent. This puts the majority of the force on the hips where it belongs.

The back angle allows the bar to stay over the middle of the foot ( the body's natural center of balance against the floor ). The more-horizontal back position allows the hips to do their part of the work, keeping the stress off the knees and providing a way to progressively strengthen the back too.

The quadriceps muscles on the front of the thigh attach to the tibia ( the shin bone ) just below the kneecap, on the bump at the top of the bone on the front. When they pull on the knee, the force is directed forward relative to the knee joint. Balancing this forward force is the backward pull from the hamstrings, which attach on either side of the same bone ( the top of the tibia ). When the hamstrings are positioned correctly by the hips moving back and the torso leaning forward, the backward pull from the hamstrings balances the forward pull from the quads. This balance is optimum when the hips drop just below the level of the knees.

Find a squat rack, power cage, or a squat stand and set the height of the bar to be about the same height as your collarbone. If your options are either too high or too low, it’s always best to go too low.

Always warm up with a few sets with just the bar.

The high bar back squat:

Start by stepping up to the bar, facing it. Step under the bar, and put your hands around it. Put your thumbs around the bar. The narrower the grip, the better of a "shelf" will be formed on your back to hold the bar.

Las rodillas deben sobrepasar la línea vertical de la punta de los pies para una sentadilla saludable y funcional.

18 deadlift

Si se realiza este ejercicio no es necesario realizar extensiones lumbares inclinadas ( sobre el banco ).

Nuestro cuerpo está diseñado para levantar peso del suelo con nuestras manos.

Cuando levantas un gran peso del suelo se activan todos los grandes grupos musculares del cuerpo.

Si lo que quieres es desarrollar masa muscular, ningún ejercicio es mejor que este. Libera más testosterona y hormona de crecimiento que cualquier otro.

El peso muerto es uno de los ejercicios con más aplicabilidad en la vida real.

Cuando estás levantando un peso grande del suelo, una mala tecnica puede marcar la diferencia entre que sea el mejor ejercicio para desarrollar músculo, o el mejor para partirte la espalda.

18.1 stance

Setup with your heels hip-width apart for deadlifts. The goal is to create space for your arms so they don’t get blocked by your legs during the setup.

18.2 feet

Always start by putting your mid-foot under the bar. Setup with the bar over the middle of your foot. Your mid-foot is your balance point. Keep your feet on the floor. Setup with your toes pointing about 15° out.

18.3 grip

Grip the bar tight about shoulder-width apart. This puts your arms vertical to the floor when looking from the front.

Grip the bar with both palms facing you and your thumbs around the bar. This is the normal or double overhand grip. You can use the mixed grip later when you can’t hold it with a normal grip. But don’t use it on every set or you’ll have nothing to switch to when your grip fails. Deadlift most sets with the normal grip.

Con un agarre normal, tienes 8 dedos por delante de la barra y dos ( los pulgares ) por detrás. Cuando el peso aumenta, son los pulgares los que empiezan a ceder. Con un agarre mixto ( una mano en supino y la otra en prono ), tienes 5 dedos en cada lado, y es más fácil aguantar la barra. Para evitar desequilibrios musculares, intercambia las manos de vez en cuando, y utiliza este agarre sólo cuando no puedas levantar el peso con el agarre normal.

Most people make the mistake of gripping the bar in the middle of their palms. Gravity pulls the bar down when you deadlift. The bar will slide down your palm and fold the skin under it. It will then put pressure on those skin folds. This causes hand pain and big callus that tear more easily. The proper way to grip the bar on deadlifts is low hand. Hold the bar lower, close to your fingers. Put it on top of your main callus not above them. This stops the bar from folding and squeezing your skin. Your hands will no longer hurt and you’ll quit forming big callus that easily tear.

Don’t wear gloves. Your skin will form calluses to protect against the pressure of the bar. The pain will be gone once you have calluses. It only takes a couple of workouts.

18.4 arms

Your arms must be vertical when looking from the front. From the side, your arms should be inclined during your setup ( your shoulder-blades should be over the bar ).

Lock your elbows. Straighten your arms before you pull the weight off the floor. Keep them straight during the whole movement until the lockout.

18.5 bar

The bar must move up in a vertical line. The bar should move in a vertical line on the way down as well. And it should land right over your mid-foot again, ready for your next rep.

18.6 shoulder-blades

Your shoulder-blades, mid-foot and the bar must be aligned when you setup. Your shoulder-blades must be above the bar and the bar must be above your mid-foot when you setup.

Don’t squeeze your shoulder-blades on deadlifts like on the squat and bench press. Keep them back ( retracted ) by raising your chest when you setup. Lock the position by contracting your lats. But don’t try to make your shoulder-blades touch.

18.7 shoulders

Your shoulders must be in front of the bar when you setup for deadlifts.

18.8 shins

Shins against bar ( grab the bar and bend over until your shins touch the bar ).

La barra debería estar a la altura de la mitad de tus pantorrillas aproximadamente. Si utilizas pesas de 45lb, la altura es ya la correcta. Si utilizas pesas menores, te recomiendo poner debajo otra pesa para elevar un poco la barra.

18.9 knees

Setup with your toes pointing about 15° out. Then push your knees in the same direction as your toes during your setup and while you pull the weight. This will engage your groin muscles.

Pushing your knees out also keeps them back and out of the way of the bar. You’re less likely to hit them on the way up.

Lock your knees at the top of every rep so you have a strong position to hold the weight. Straighten your legs through their full range of motion until your knee joints are locked. The rep doesn’t count if you fail to finish your deadlifts with locked knees.

18.10 lower back

Keep your lower back neutral so you have that normal inward curve.

You lower back must stay neutral to avoid injury. A neutral spinal position means that the lower back is neither bent forward nor backward. In neutral position, the lower back retains a slight curve toward the front of the body. Never lose the natural arch of your back.

Set your lower back neutral before you pull the weight. Setup with the bar over your mid-foot, grab it and bend your legs until your shins touch the bar. Raise your chest and your lower spine will be neutral.

Once your lower back is neutral, lock it into position before you pull. Raise your chest, contract your abs and take a big breath. Hold it and then pull. Best is to contract your whole torso between every rep before pulling the weight again.

Your back doesn’t lift the weight. It just keeps your spine neutral while transferring force generated by your legs to the bar.

18.11 upper-back

Your upper-back should also remain neutral when you deadlift.

You do this by raising your chest before pulling the weight. Keep your chest up by taking a big breath and squeezing your lats. Your upper-spine has a normal outward curve. It will look slightly rounded when you raise your chest.

18.12 head

Deadlift with your neck neutral. Position your head so you have that natural inward curve in your cervical spine. This means you shouldn’t be looking forward when you setup for deadlifts.

Position your head so you have that natural inward curve in your cervical spine.

18.13 setup

  1. bar over mid-foot ( middle of your whole foot not just visible part ).
  2. shins against bar ( grab the bar and bend over until your shins touch the bar ).
  3. shoulder-blades above the bar ( shoulders in front of the bar, arms slightly incline ).
  4. neutral spine ( natural lower back arch, chest up, head inline with your spine ),

Setup by walking to the bar first. Put your mid-foot under it. Grab the bar. Then bend your legs until your shins touch the bar. Now straighten your spine by raising your chest.

You’re doing it right if your mid-foot and shoulder-blades are aligned with the bar. You should be able to draw a perpendicular through them when looking from the side.

Every rep must start from this position. The key is to lower the bar in a vertical line so it lands over your mid-foot again. Lock your back in the neutral position by raising your chest and taking a big breath before you pull the next rep.

Your toes should be slightly out, about 15 degrees. Push your knees out as well ( it keeps your shins back and out of the way of the bar ).

18.14 way up

Proper deadlift form is lifting the bar in a vertical line.

Drag the bar over your legs. If you setup correctly, your shins started against the bar. Keep it close to your center of mass by dragging the bar over your shins, knees and thighs to the top. Protect your legs by wearing long pants or socks.

Para iniciar el movimiento empieza enderezando un poco las rodillas, principalmente con el impulso de los cuádriceps.

Raise your hips and chest at the same time. Don’t let your hips rise first or your legs will straighten too soon. Wait until the bar has left the floor to raise your hips and chest at the same time.

Cuando la barra supera la altura de las rodillas desplaza la cadera hacia delante ( glúteos y femorales ).

Durante la subida manten tus abdominales y espalda tensa ( como un bloque ).

Try to push your feet through the floor instead of pulling the weight back. Imagine you’re doing the leg press ( lift the bar by pushing the floor away with your feet ).

18.15 way down

The way down must be a mirror of the way up. The bar must move down in a vertical line. It must stay in contact with your legs to decrease lower back stress. And it must land over your mid-foot ready for your next rep.

Return the weight to the floor by unlocking your hips and knees first. Then lower the bar by moving your hips back while keeping your legs almost straight.

Once the bar is past your knees, bend your legs more. The bar will land over your mid-foot, ready for your next rep. La barra toca el suelo ligeramente ( don’t bounce ). Pon el peso en el suelo de manera controlada. Your hips and shoulder-blades will be in proper position.

The bar should never hit your knees. Keep your lower back neutral ( don’t let it round or hyper-extend ). Normal inward curve.

18.16 breathing

Inhale before pulling the bar off the floor. Hold your breath while you pull the weight. Continue to hold your breath at the top. Lower the weight back on the floor and then exhale.

18.17 lockout

Finish your deadlift by locking your knees and by thrusting the hips into alignment. Lock your hips so your lower back ends in a stable and safe neutral position. Stand tall with your chest up and shoulders back and hanging. Hold the weight for a second at the top, over your mid-foot. Then lower it back to the floor under control.

Finish every deadlift set with static holds to further increase your grip strength ( cuerpo vertical y brazos estirados sujetando la barra ).

18.18 between reps

Rest a second between reps. Stay in the setup position with your hands on the bar. Take a big breath, get tight, and pull again

Every rep must start from a DEAD stop because this is a DEADlift. Don’t bounce the weight off the floor. The weight must be still before you pull your next rep. Rest the bar on the floor for a second between reps. Use this pause to breathe and set yourself back in a strong position before you pull again. The pause gives you time to setup with proper form for your next rep.

Work hard on getting tight between reps to lock your spine in a neutral position. Try to get your whole torso stiff by contracting your chest, abs and lats. Do this when you take that big breath right before you pull the weight off the floor.

18.19 safety concerns

The best way to increase safety is by using proper form. Start light, use proper form, and slowly add weight. Your trunk muscles will get stronger as the weight increases. This will build a stronger back that is harder to injure. Every time you deadlift, you should be totally focused on good form.

Proper recovery allows for gains in both strength and size.

18.20 brace

  1. once you’ve set up, take a deep breath. Fill up your belly first, then your chest. If you’re wearing a belt, try to expand your waistline in every direction to press against it. This takes some practice but you can do it.
  2. now contract your pelvic floor. These are the muscles deep in your hips that support your organs, help a woman give birth, and cut off your pee stream when you need to go to the bathroom but can’t. Contracting them is as simple as pinching off your pee.
  3. brace your abs like you’re about to be punched. You’ll feel so much tension throughout your body it will even travel into your face and ears. That’s what you want. You are now solid as steel, my friend.
  4. lift the weight.

It's recommended that the Valsalva not be held more than a few seconds to ensure blood pressure doesn't increase dramatically.

Without intra-abdominal pressure created by breathing in air against a braced abdominal musculature and forcing the diaphragm down, true spinal stability can't occur.

The classic breathing technique used is the Valsalva maneuver.

The idea behind this is to create intra-abdominal pressure, which is meant to lead to a greater production of force and stability.

Perform the Valsalva maneuver by breathing deep into the lungs ( which are down near your abdomen, for those who still think making your chest and shoulders rise is taking a deep breath ), then holding it and forcing the air against a closed glottis.

19 bench press

Hold the bar in the base of your palm, close to your wrist. Squeeze the bar.

Vertical forearms at the bottom.

Lockout with straight elbows. Move the bar back against the rack. Lower it in the uprights.

Bar path: diagonal line from your mid-chest to shoulders.

Don’t bench press heavy without power rack ( the bar will crush you if you fail ). Start light and focus on form before going heavy.

Wrap your thumbs around the bar using the full grip. Squeeze the bar so it can’t move in your hands. Straighten your wrists by gripping the bar lower in your hands.

Keep your head neutral. Don’t turn your head to look at the uprights or you’ll tweak your neck. Don’t raise your head to check if the bar touched your chest. Look at the ceiling and keep your head neutral. Rack the bar without turning your head. Lockout the bar over your shoulders and move it back against the vertical parts of your power pack. Don’t Push With Your Head. Your neck will hurt if you push your head into the bench when you press. Tighten your neck muscles without pushing your head into the bench. The simplest way to do this is by keeping your head off the bench. Touch your flat bench with your hair only. Your neck muscles will be tight if your head is off the bench. Your neck won’t hurt because you can’t push your head into the bench.

19.1 shoulders

Keep your shoulders on the bench. Let the weight sink your shoulders in the bench before you lower the bar.

The best way to keep you shoulders back on the bench is to think of pushing, not pressing. Push yourself away from the bar instead of pressing the bar away from your chest. Imagine you’re doing a pushup and are pushing yourself away from the floor instead of pushing the floor away. Bench press by pushing yourself away from the bar into the bench. Your shoulders will stay back.

19.2 shoulder-blades

Squeeze your shoulder-blades. Lie on the bench with your upper-back tight. Imagine holding a pen between your shoulder-blades by squeezing them together. This flattens your upper-back and increases stability when you lie on the bench. Don’t just lie on the bench. Squeeze your shoulder-blades before you unrack the weight.

19.3 upper-back

Keep you back tight, chest up and shoulders back.

Keep your upper-back tight by pushing yourself in the bench on each rep.

19.4 chest

Raise your chest towards the ceiling. Do this by arching your lower back and rotating your ribcage up. Keep your butt on the bench. Squeeze your lats to lock your chest in position.

19.5 lower-back

Arch your lower back to keep your chest up. Natural arch like when you stand. No overarching. Overarching compresses your spinal discs. It can cause back pain.

I should be able to slide my flat hand between the bench and your lower back. Arching your lower back helps keeping your chest up.

19.6 butt

Bench press with your butt on the bench. Your lower back can come off the bench to keep you chest up. But your butt can’t or it’s a failed rep. If it does, check if your bench is 45cm high. If it’s lower, raise it. Then bench by pushing your feet into the floor, and your upper-back and glutes into the bench. Don’t just push from your feet.

19.7 feet

Bench press with your feet flat on the floor.

Bench press with your heels about shoulder-width apart. Use the same stance you use on squats.

Turn your feet out 30° so they align with your thighs.

Bench press with your knees above your ankles. This means 90° angle at your knee and ankle joints.

Your feet can be slightly behind your knees as long as you don’t raise your heels off the floor, your butt off the bench, or overarch. This can help you push from your legs better.

19.8 unracking

Lie on your bench with your eyes under the bar.

Keep your shoulders back on your bench when you unrack the weight. Setup with your shoulder-blades squeezed together and your chest up. Stay tight. Don’t let your shoulders come forward. If they do, lower your uprights. Your elbows must be bent when you grab the bar. You must unrack by straightening your arms, not shrugging your shoulders. This keeps them back on the bench.

Lock your elbows. Lift the bar out of the uprights by locking your elbows. Keep them locked while moving the bar to your shoulders. Don’t unrack with bent elbows. Let your stronger skeleton carry the weight, not your muscles. Locking your elbows isn’t bad as long as you don’t hyper-extend them. If your elbows are locked before you unrack the bar, lower your uprights.

Move the bar from your power rack to your shoulders before you lower it. Balance it over your shoulders first. Don’t lower the bar from the uprights to your chest in an incline line. Unrack the bar, move it to your shoulders and then lower it.

19.9 way down

Lower the bar under control but don’t be slow. If you lower the bar too slow, you’ll lose strength for bench ressing the weight up.

Lower the bar until it touches your mid-chest ( the middle of your breastbone ) and press it back up. Don’t pause at the bottom or the weight will be harder to bench. Use the stretch reflex by quickly reversing the movement. Your muscles will contract harder after the stretch on the way down.

19.10 breathing

19.11 barbell

Center your barbell in the uprights so you unrack it evenly. Bench Press a barbell with revolving sleeves. The plates must spin independently of the bar.

Center your bench in your power rack for proper balance. It should be 30cm wide.

19.12 uprights

Set the uprights so your arms are bent when you grab the bar.Lie on the bench with your eyes under the bar. Chest up, shoulder-blades squeezed and back arched. Grab the bar and press it out of the uprights by straightening your arms. If you do this correctly your shoulders will stay back on the bench.

Your uprights are too high if your arms are straight when you grab the bar. Lower the uprights so you have to straighten your arms as little as possible to lift the bar out of the uprights.

19.13 safety pins

Set the safety pins of your Power Rack lower than the bottom of your bench press. The bar must touch your chest without hitting the pins.

When you fail a rep and get pinned by the weight, lower the bar to your chest first. Then lower it to your safety pins by flattening your torso. This is another reason why you should Bench Press with your chest up, shoulder-blades squeezed and back arched. It raises your torso so you can bench press with lower safety pins without hitting them on good reps.

20 barbell row

Barbell rows are assistance work for the other four exercises. Assistance exercises target small muscles which grow more slowly.

The barbell row starts with the bar on the floor. And the bar returns to the floor on every rep.

Bar path: vertical line from your mid-foot to your lower chest.

La posicion mas baja de la barra tiene que estar entre 21 y 23 cm del suelo.

20.1 holw to barbell row

Walk to the bar. Don’t touch it with your shins.

Shoulder-blades: over the bar and your mid-foot at the bottom, squeeze them at the top.

You must pull your shoulder-blades back at the top to get the bar to your chest. This works your broadest back muscle that give you a v-shape: your lats ( latisimus dorsi ). It also works your traps, rear shoulders and all the small muscles of your upper-back.

20.2 stance

The narrower your grip, the narrower your stance must be so your legs don’t push against your arms when you barbell row. The wider your grip, the wider your stance can be. Your heels should be wider apart than your hips, but narrower than your shoulders.

20.3 feet

Setup with the bar over your mid-foot like when you deadlift. This is your balance point. The most effective way to barbell row the weight from the floor to your chest is in a vertical line over this balance point.

Your whole foot must stay on the floor when you barbell row. Don’t let your heels come off the floor or you’ll fall forward. Don’t raise your toes either. Keep your toes, heels and forefoot on the floor.

Toes out 30°. Point your knees in the same direction as your toes. Push your knees out to keep them out of the bar path.

20.4 grip

Grip the bar with both palms facing you ( pronated ). Wrap your thumbs around the bar. The harder you squeeze the bar, the less it can move in your hands. Squeezing the bar also contracts your arms and shoulders more. It engages more muscles.

Grip the bar close to your fingers, on top of your main calluses.

If the weight is too heavy for your grip to hold, your only options are chalk, straps or the hook grip. If you need to use strap, use them on your heavy sets only. Do your lighter sets without straps to build grip strength.

The hook grip is a method of holding a barbell by gripping the thumb between the barbell and the remaining fingers.

20.5 grip width

Barbell row with your grip narrower than on the bench press but wider than on the deadlift.

If your lower back rounds, narrow your grip when you barbell row. Narrow also your stance so your legs don’t push against your arms when you pull the weight from the floor.

20.6 wrists

Keep your wrists straight when you barbell row. Lock your wrists in position so you have a straight line from your elbows to your wrists to the bar. Don’t let your wrists bend back or they’ll hurt.

20.7 elbows

Straighten your arms before you barbell row the weight ( elbows locked at the bottom ).

Lift the bar by bending your elbows and driving them to the ceiling Touch your chest with the bar by pulling your elbows behind your torso at the top.

Keep your elbows 75° in at the top, like when you bench press. The exact angle will depend on your build, back angle, grip, etc.

20.8 torso

Setup for barbell rows with your torso horizontal with the floor.

Let your torso rise when you barbell row as long as it doesn’t rise more than 15° above horizontal. If your torso rises more than 15° above parallel, the weight is too heavy.

If you can’t keep your torso from raising more than 15° above horizontal, the weight is too heavy.

The easiest way to keep your lower back from rounding is to raise your chest to the ceiling when you setup. Squeeze your lats ( armpits ) to lock your chest in position. Then take a big breath and row. Your chest will drop between reps. Raise it again before doing your next rep.

20.9 lower back

Don’t barbell row with your lower back rounded. Don’t over-arch it either by hyper-extending your lower spine. Both squeeze your spinal discs and can cause lower back injuries like herniated discs. Keep your lower back neutral. Barbell row with a natural arch like when you stand and you’ll be safe.

Set your lower back neutral before you barbell row the weight off the floor. Keep it neutral throughout the lift.

20.10 knees

Setup for barbell rows with bent knees. Unlock your knees but keep your legs as straight as you can. Bend your knees but keep them back so the bar can’t hit them. . The more you bend your legs, the easier to reach the bar and grab it. The less you bend your legs, the more your knees stay back and the less likely you are to hit them with the bar.

Setup with your toes out 30°. Then push your knees in the same direction as your toes when you barbell row. The bar will go up without hitting your knees.

If your knees straighten when the bar leaves the floor and then rebend at bottom to drop you chest, the weight is too heavy. Lower the weight and do it right.

20.11 hips

Setup for barbell rows with your hips higher than on deadlifts. And your legs should be almost straight to keep your knees back and out of the way of the bar.

20.12 chest

Do not squeeze your shoulder-blades at the bottom. Squeeze your lats ( armpits ) instead to lock your chest in position. Squeeze your shoulder-blades at the top.

Your chest will drop between reps. Raise it again before doing your next rep.

Pull the bar from the floor against your lower chest.

20.13 shoulders

Setup for barbell rows with your shoulders in front of the bar. Your shoulders must be in front of the bar like when you deadlift. But your hips should be higher so your torso stays horizontal.

20.14 shoulder blades

Start with your elbows extended and allow your shoulder blades to protract, or "drift," to get a slight pre-stretch on the middle traps, rhomboids, and lats.

When rowing, the primary movement we're looking for is scapular retraction, or a pinching together of the shoulder blades.

From the stretched position, think about pulling through your elbows and actively squeezing the shoulder blades back and together.

20.15 head

Head inline with torso. Don’t look up when you barbell row. This squeezes the spinal discs in your neck and can injure it. Don’t look at your feet either or your back will round. Keep your head inline with the rest of your spine. From the side you should have a straight line from your head to your hips.

20.16 way up

Pull with your elbows. Setup with straight arms and locked elbows. Then pull the bar off the floor by pulling your elbows towards the ceiling. Keep pulling until they end behind your torso at the top. Don’t try to barbell row the weight by just bending your arms. They aren’t strong enough to curl the weight. Use your stronger upper-back muscles by leading with your elbows. Pull them back and behind your torso.

Open your hip when the bar leaves the floor. Use your stronger hip muscles to get momentum at the bottom. Your knees shouldn’t move, just your hips. If you do this right, your torso will raise above horizontal. It will then stay there while your elbows move back to complete the movement. Don’t be strict by keeping your torso horizontal. Use your hips so you can barbell row heavier weights.

Hit your lower chest. The exact position depends on your build and form. But the bar must move vertically over your mid-foot while your torso stays horizontal.

20.17 way down

Lower the bar fast. Return the bar quickly to the floor after it hits your chest. It must go down faster than it went up. This doesn’t mean you should drop the bar. You should hold it. But lower it fast. Barbell row on rubber mats to reduce the noise of the plates hitting the floor.

20.18 breathing

Breathe at the bottom. Get tight, take a big breath and row the weight.

Hold your breath at the top. Don’t exhale on the way up or at the top of your barbell rows. Hold your breath until the weight is back on the floor.

20.19 between repetitions

Barbell row dead weight from a dead stop. Lower the bar to the floor.

The plates must touch the floor at the start of every repetition you barbell row. Pull the weight from the floor against your lower chest, then return it to the floor. Pause for a second. Use the short rest between repetitions to get tight, set your lower back neutral, raise your chest and breath.

21 overhead press

Proper overhead press form starts standing with the bar on your shoulders. Press the bar over your head until your elbows are locked. Lower the bar to your shoulders and repeat.

21.1 stance

Overhead press with your heels under your hips.

You have better balance when your whole foot is flat on the floor. It increases the surface is in contact with the floor. Better balance is more safety, more bar control and better form.

Overhead press with your feet parallel. You can turn them out 15°. But don’t let one foot be more forward than the other.

21.2 legs

Don’t let them bend. Don’t use your legs, keep them straight. Lock gently. If you can’t keep your knees locked, the weight is too heavy.

Keep your hips locked. Squeeze your glutes if you have to.

21.3 forearms and elbows

Each rep you overhead press must start with vertical forearms at the bottom. Grip narrow and put your elbows almost under the bar and slightly in front of it.

21.4 wrist

Overhead press with your wrists almost straight. Your knuckles shouldn’t be vertical or the bar will drop out of your hands. They should be about 75° back with your wrists slightly bent. The goal is to hold the bar close to your wrists, on top of your forearm bones.

21.5 shoulders

Finish every rep by shrugging your traps. Press the bar from your shoulders over your head. Keep pressing until your arms are straight. Once your elbows are locked, shrug your shoulders towards the ceiling. Hold it for a second before lowering the bar. Shrugging your traps at the top makes the bar easier to hold over your head. It engages more muscles ( e.g. the traps ). And it also prevents shoulder impingement.

21.6 chest

Lift your chest before you press the bar off your shoulders. This creates a tighter surface to press from. Make a big chest and try to touch your chin with your upper-chest. Do this by arching your upper-back. Keep your lower back neutral, don’t over-arch. Squeeze your armpits and take a big breath to lock your chest in position. Remember to raise your chest between reps before pressing the next one.

21.7 torso

Lean slightly back before you press the weight off your shoulders. Do this by pushing your hips forward without over-arching your lower back or bending your knees. This keeps your head back and out of the way of the bar. Now press the weight in a vertical line up while moving your torso forward. Don’t stay back or the weight will be harder to press. Get closer by moving your torso forward while the bar goes up.

21.8 lower back

Your lower back must stay neutral when you overhead press. Do NOT lean back when you struggle by arching your lower back.

Note that you should lean back when you overhead press. This moves your head out of the way of the bar. It allows you to press in a vertical line which is more effective. But this lean back must come from your hips. Keep your lower back neutral while moving your hips forward. Do this before the bar leaves your shoulders, not after or during. Once the bar moves, don’t lean back more. Move your torso forward to stay close to the bar.

If you can’t stop your lower back from arching, get tighter. Take a bigger breath before you press the weight. Squeeze your abs as if somebody was going to punch you in the stomach. Wearing a belt when you overhead press can cue you to squeeze your abs by giving them something to push against.

21.9 upper back

Arch your upper-back.

21.10 traps

Finish every rep by shrugging your traps. Press the bar from your shoulders over your head. Keep pressing until your arms are straight. Once your elbows are locked, shrug your shoulders towards the ceiling. Hold it for a second before lowering the bar. Shrugging your traps at the top makes the bar easier to hold over your head. It engages more muscles. And it also prevents shoulder impingement.

21.11 neck and head

Overhead press with your head neutral. Keep it inline with the rest of your spine. Stare at a point level with your eyes in front of you. Keep staring until your set is over.

Don’t tilt your head to one side to make room for the bar.

Keep your head under the bar at the top. If you do it right, the bar will end over your shoulders and ears when you lockout the weight.

Sleeping on your belly with your head twisted to one side is bad. Sleep on your side. Get a good pillow to support the arch in your neck. The screen of your computer should be eye level.

Massage can speed up recovery from neck pain. You can try it yourself. Stand with your back against the wall. Put a tennis or lacrosse ball between your trap and the wall. Lean against the ball and the wall to apply pressure. Do this back on the floor for more pressure. Roll around to massage the whole area. Your neck will loosen up if you do this 2-3x/day. But fix what caused the pain too.

21.12 bar path

Press the bar in a vertical line. Videotape yourself from the side view to check your bar path.

Keep the bar close to your face. Hold it over you shoulders at the top.

21.13 breathing

Inhale at the bottom. Setup with the bar on your shoulders. Raise your chest by arching your upper-back. Keep your lower back neutral, no over-arching. Put your forearms vertical and rest your triceps on your lats muscles. Now take a big breath, hold it and press. Breathing in increases the pressure in your torso. It locks your chest in position and creates a tighter surface to press the bar from. This boosts strength.

Hold your breath on the way up. Don’t exhale at the top either. Exhale once the bar is back on your shoulders.

Get tight by raising your chest and arching your upper-back. Then take a big breath, hold it and press your next rep. If the weight is heavy and moves slowly, you can exhale on the way up. But don’t empty your lungs. Exhale against your closed glottis ( or grunt ) to release some pressure. On most reps you can wait to exhale until the bar is on you shoulders.

21.14 between reps

Don’t bounce. Rest at the bottom for a second before doing your next rep. Use this rest to get everything tight. Raise your chest by arching your upper-back. Put your forearms vertical to the floor. Take a big breath, hold it and then press your next rep.

21.15 way up

Press in vertical line. But your head is in the way of the bar at the bottom. You must create space for the bar to move in a vertical line up. Lean back at the bottom before you press the weight. Keep your lower back neutral while moving your hips forward. This will keep your head back and out of the way.

Keep the bar close to your face on the way up.

Once the bar clears your head, move your torso forward to keep the bar close.

Keep your elbows close to your torso. Setup with a narrow grip just outside your shoulders. Raise your chest by arching your upper-back. Put your forearms vertical. Rest your triceps on your lats. Your elbows will be about 45° in at the bottom.

21.16 lockout

The bar is balanced when you lock it over your shoulders at the top. Lock the bar over your shoulders.

Lock your elbows at the top of each rep so your skeleton can hold the weight. This is safe for your elbow joints as long as you don’t hyper-extend your arms. Lock your elbows gently without going past their normal range of motion.

21.17 way down

The way down must be a mirror of the way up.

The optimal lifting tempo is one where you can maintain proper form and press the most amount of weight.

22 spinal decompression

Everyday activities can place a lot of stress and compression on your back. Sitting in office chairs, standing up all day, even laying down on a flat bed puts a little bit of compression on your spine. Your spine needs decompression to keep it from becoming too tight. Excess compression can lead to injury.

Grab the pull-up bar and let your body hang. Hang with both palms facing you and your grip shoulder-width apart. The key to decompressing your spine by hanging involves making sure that your feet are totally off of the ground as you hang. If your feet touch the floor because your bar hangs too low, bend your knees, crossing your legs and bringing your feet back behind you. But keep your lower back neutral and relaxed, no arching.

The vertical stretch increases shoulder mobility and stretches your shoulders, lats ( latissimus dorsi ), and other upper-back muscles. Spinal decompressions also increase grip strength. This can help you with your deadlifts. Lack of grip strength can limit how much time you hang on the bar. Hang for a minute and relax. If you can’t hold this position for 60 seconds then hold for as long as possible.

Keep your head straight and faced forward to maintain a straight alignment of your spine.

Let gravity take over and allow your body to come to a dead hang. Your shoulders should be right next to your ears. The key is to allow gravity to pull your torso down, allowing your spine to be straightened.

We also suggest you hang from a pull-up bar several times a day, and you should definitely hang from one during your warm-up, cool-down, and after every heavy weight exercise that compresses your back ( ex. squats or deadlifts ). Hanging on the pull-up bar is one of the simplest, yet most effective stretches you can do. Your back will thank you immensely!

23 crunch

Crunches do strengthen your core. However they primarily target the superficial core muscle rectus abdominis or the ‘six pack’ muscles.

Crunches can be effective when used in combination with lower back strengthening exercises and other core exercises which target the deeper abdominals like planks.

Another potential problem with crunches is that many people excessively round through their upper back, shoulders and neck. It is often easy to see when someone is doing this when performing crunches as their elbows will be drawn in, and their head will be curving forward. This kyphosis posture and inward rotation of the shoulders is one which many people are already predisposed to thanks to hours hunched over a laptop, phone, or other device. When doing crunches, it is important to ensure we are not simply encouraging more of this bad posture just so we can get strong abs. You can avoid bad posture and still perform crunches by following these technique tips:

Keep your elbows wide and chest open. Think about the shoulder blades drawing in towards each other/the spine ) and relax the head back into the hands as much as possible. Ideally you should not even be able to see your elbows out of the corner of your eyes.

Keep the neck in line with the spine and don’t roll it inwards as you crunch. Imagine your chest lifting rather than your head, every time you lift your shoulders off the ground

Lie on your back with your feet against a wall ( so your knees and hips are bent at a 90-degree angle ).

Instead of trying to bring the shoulders to the knees, think about bringing them straight up towards the ceiling. This will engage the abs without compromising the spine. Lift toward the ceiling until your shoulder blades clear the ground, then slowly lower your torso back down.

Do not put the back into a similar position as sitting hunched over in a desk chair!

Lie flat on your back with your feet flat on the ground. Place your feet slightly wider than hip width apart on the floor.

Make sure your neck is in a neutral position. ie: not tucked into your chest and not too far back.

Tuck: a posterior pelvic tilt where you gently roll the pubic bone towards the rib cage as a way of decreasing or flattening the low back curve.

Use a gentle pelvic tuck if you’re trying to stretch your hip flexors.

When you tuck ( and this would refer to both definitions that I outlined ) you do get more abdominal engagement from the outer unit of the core ( obliques, rectus, etc ).

Keep your pelvis and spine in a neutral position while doing crunches. Your pubic bone and two hips bones will be in a plane parallel to the floor. Once you get your pelvis in neutral you'll notice that your low spine has a natural curve, which needs to be maintened while you do crunches.

Most people can anatomically roll up to about the 8th thoracic vertebra, which is about the bottom of your shoulder blades while still being able to keep their pelvis in neutral. That's how high you need to roll up in your crunch every time.

Keep your elbows wide to the side and stationary.

A lot of us are so dominant in our hip flexors that we need the tuck + extra ab engagement to avoid letting our pelvis tip anterior ( putting a big arch in your back ) thus creating strain in the lower back.

You may also need a heavy abdominal “brace” if you’re going to haul a heavy weight, but in that case, you’d absolutely want to be in a neutral spine – which negates the idea of tucking completely.

Spread your fingers apart and place your fingertips on your head behind your ears. Fingertips lightly touch the head.

Make sure your lower back is flat on the ground. You achieve this by tucking your hips until you can feel your back touch the floor. You should aim to go as high as you can without lifting your lower back off the ground.

While pushing the small of your back down in the floor, begin to roll your shoulders off the floor. Continue to push down as hard as you can with your lower back as you contract your abdominals and exhale. At the top of the movement, contract your abdominals hard and keep the contraction for a second.

Focus on bringing your ribs down to your belly button. It will raise your chest a few inches off of the ground. That little motion is all you need to target your abs.

Keep your movements slow and controlled. At the end of each rep, pause with your back firmly against the floor. Reset before moving on to the next rep.

Cross your arms over your chest or place your fingertips around your ears. Point your elbows forward or, if you want to make the move more challenging, point your elbows directly out to either side.

Make sure there is a fist's worth of space between your chin and chest.

Practice crunches slowly and with awareness. Focus on slow, controlled movement. Don't cheat yourself by using momentum. Focus on using your abdominal muscles to slowly lower yourself, rather than drop, to the floor. Slow and steady wins the race.

Exhale on the way up and you'll automatically breathe in on the way down.

An approved crunch begins with you lying down, one knee bent, and hands positioned beneath your lower back for support. “Do not hollow your stomach or press your back against the floor,” McGill says. Gently lift your head and shoulders, hold briefly and relax back down

To perform a crunch, lie on your back with one leg extended and the other bent 90 degrees with the foot flat on the floor. Place your hands under the lower back to support a neutral arch. Do not flatten your low back against the floor. Next, lift just your head and shoulders off the floor. Keep the axis of the motion in the upper back area and keep your neck in a neutral position.

Lie on your back with your left leg straight and flat on the floor. Your right knee should be bent to 90° with your right foot flat. This will help to preserve the natural “arch” in your lower back, also known as a neutral spine posture.

Place your hands under your lower back with your palms down. Again, this helps to keep your spine in neutral.

24 opossite arm and leg reach

Start on all fours, brace your abs, extend your right arm by your right ear and extend your left leg out behind your hip. Your leg and arm should make a straight line through your torso. Hold for one to five seconds. Lower your arm and leg and switch sides. Imagine trying to balance a cup of tea on your lower back during the entire exercise. Do 20 alternating reps.

25 bird dog plank

Begin in a standard plank. Lift your right leg straight behind you, then lift your left arm straight in front of you. Keep your body in a straight line from fingertip to toe.

26 elbow plank

Get face down on the floor, resting on your forearms and knees. Push off the floor, raising up off your knees onto your toes and resting mainly on your elbows. Contract your abs to keep yourself up and prevent your butt from sticking up. Keep your back flat. Picture your body as a long straight board or plank. Hold for 20 seconds.

27 plank with straight leg raise

Contract your glutes and lift one leg off the floor. Hold the position for a few seconds and then return your leg to the starting position.

28 elbow plank with reach

Begin in an elbow plank with your feet slightly wider than your hips to create more stability. Reach your right arm straight out, with the thumb pointed toward the ceiling. Return back to elbow plank, and reach your left arm out. This completes one rep. Complete 12-16 reps.

29 abs wheel roll outs

It’s not enough to just do advanced leg raises, we also need to build the deep, inner abdominals known as the TVA. Get strong at this exercise and you will injury proof your body, greatly improve core strength, core stability and functionality, as well, you will support a rigid and compact midsection. These isometric style abs movements where the spine stays in one place, also promote great muscle tone.

Go down as far as you can without touching the floor with your body. Breathe in during this portion of the movement. After a pause at the stretched position, start pulling yourself back to the starting position as you breathe out. Tip: Go slowly and keep your abs tight at all times.

When using the ab roller, your core moves to prevent your back from arching, while flexing the spine to both stretch and contract your abs through a full range of motion. This movement provides a huge challenge to your rectus abdominus, the six pack muscle, as well as deep spinal stabilizers, such as the transerve abdominus. This makes the ab wheel roller a great tool for both a stronger, and more muscular core.

29.1 kneeling ab-wheel rollout

Place your knees on the floor at hip width and hands on the wheel. Keep your abs tight to prevent arching your lower back. Roll the wheel forward as far as possible ( ideally with your arms fully extended ) before rolling the wheel underneath your body and returning to an upright position.

It's best to start with shorter ranges of motion, gradually working the wheel out farther as you get stronger. Perform two to three sets of six to eight reps, increasing your reps by two each week until you reach ten.

29.2 full rollout

The full rollout takes the kneeling rollout and abs to another level of difficulty. Instead of kneeling, you'll be in a full push-up position on your toes with the ab wheel held underneath your shoulders. From here, roll the wheel in front of your body slowly before bringing your hands back underneath your chest. This can take months to work up to, so start slowly with two to three sets of three to five reps.

30 hanging leg raises from a bar

Start by hanging from a pullup bar with your arms fully extended. If you’re new to this exercise, keep your legs bent and lift them up towards your chest. Release back to your starting position with control. More experienced exercisers can do their hanging leg raises with straight legs. Another variation of this exercise involves lifting your toes all the way up to the bar, so that they end up above your head. This option is only for experienced exercisers with strong backs.

To perform this exercise, grip the bar overhand with your hands a bit wider than shoulder width, hanging with your body fully extended. Keeping your spine straight and your feet together, lift your knees into your chest with a smooth, controlled motion and return your feet to the extended position.

Try five sets of five reps three times weekly.

From the hanging position hold a pull-up bar with a double, overhand grip. Bend your knees and slowly lift them towards your chest.